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THE EARLY BRISBANE BOTANICAL GARDENS PLAN

 

Prior to the founding of the Colony of Queensland in 1859 the original plan for the area, which extended from the southern side of Alice Street, Brisbane to the southern end of the now existing Botanical Gardens and up to the western end of Alice Street (below Parliament House) was entirely different to the present lay‑out.

The area of land which now comprises Queensland and of course, the present Botanical Gardens site, together with the land occupied by the Old Government ‑ House (now a part of a University) Technical College, Parliament House and the Alice Street Naval Depot was under the jurisdiction of the New South Wales Government.

Plans had been drawn up some years prior to Separation to subdivide this area into twelve blocks which were respectively numbered 39 to 50 inclusive. These blocks were to be intersected by three additional streets running parallel to Alice Street. They were equivalent in area to that of a present day city block, e.g. a similar area to that bounded by Queen, Albert, Elizabeth and George Streets.

Those streets running parallel to Alice Street were to be respectively named Blanche, Maude and Eclipse Streets, while George Street was planned to extend right through the present Gardens area to the river bank opposite the South Brisbane Railway Coal Wharves. Albert Street was to run to the river frontage on the eastern side of the Gardens. Two short streets, namely Digit and Henry Streets were respectively situated at the southern end and the eastern side of the proposed George Street extension.

The present roadway in the Gardens, which extends from the Edward Street entrance, was to be named Eastern Quay and was planned to continue around the Gardens riverside frontage and at the southern end was to be known as South Quay. This planned roadway extended up the western side of the Domain area to Alice Street and was to be named Western Quay. However, on the granting of Separation from New South Wales in 1859, and the consequent foundation of the Colony of Queensland as it was then called, the newly constituted Government abandoned the plan and the Government Residence and Parliament House were built on the western side of the area. The name of North Quay thus stems from this and is the only remaining link of this historic plan.

The original grant of land for the Botanical Reserve, as it was then called, only comprised six acres and was situated in the more elevated part of the present day Gardens. On the western side the boundary was in line with that of William Street, while the eastern boundary line was halfway between George and Albert Streets. The whole frontage of the area was set back about one hundred yards from Alice Street. The Botanical Reserve was actually designed by the New South Wales Government as an ornamental town square the size of a city block with George Street, as previously mentioned, running the centre of the area and flanked by connecting streets on both sides.

Walter Hill the Colonial Botanist and Curator of the Botanical Reserve was appointed at the end of 1855. He was given the sum of £500 by the N.S.W. Government to purchase rare and valuable plants. However, he soon realised that the area of six acres was not only too limited but it was also unsightly, it being then deprived of the present beautiful river frontage, a portion of which is most picturesque.

At his suggestion, the Reserve was increased to 28 acres in 1865. The old and unsightly wooden fence enclosing the Queen's Park which had frontage to Alice Street was removed in 1866 and another 10 acres were added to the Gardens Area, which now aggregates about 40 acres. The entrance at Alice Street and Edward Street was greatly improved by the inclusion of Queen's Park and the elevation of the riverside walk (the original Eastern Quay) was completed at a cost of considerable labour.

The Brisbane Botanical Gardens were laid out by Walter Hill and one of his first actions was to plant the now magnificent bunya trees which skirt the riverside walk. A great deal of experimental and acclimatisation work was carried out by him in connection with cotton, sugar cane, arrowroot, ginger, indigo, allspice and many others he considered likely to suit the cool and temperate zones of Queensland. Thereafter, he journeyed in the tracks of the pioneers and obtained many valuable specimens of plants and trees.

Fortunate indeed, is the City of Brisbane that the pleasantly situated Botanical Gardens are still in their present spaciousness and available for visits by those who enjoy the beauties of plant and flower life as well as the peaceful quietude which raises the heart and refreshes the spirit. Firstly, there were a mere six acres planned as a city square by the N.S.W. Government. The shadow of extrusion was still present even in the 1870's. When the place, i.e. the Gardens area was given over by the N.S.W. Government to the Moreton Bay Settlement in 1842, three trustees, viz. Sir Robert Mackenzie, Richard Jones and Captain Wickham were appointed and the land was to be available, when required, for wharfage purposes.

In 1873, proposals were put forward by commercial interests, in view of that fact, to obtain a river frontage 90 feet wide enclosed by an iron‑railed fence for that wharfage ‑accommodation to meet the needs of shipping traffic of the growing town of Brisbane. The land at the rear of the Parliamentary Buildings, at one time, belonged to the Corporation of Brisbane but was taken by the Government of the day when the Houses of Parliament were built.

The wharf proposal also encompassed that land‑the contention being that as the iron railing was to be set back 90 feet, no injury would be done to the Gardens or the unused area surrounding the Parliamentary Buildings. The scheme received little support and soon afterwards, wharves were constructed at Petrie's Bight and elsewhere on the Brisbane River banks.

Much has been accomplished in the first century of the Brisbane Botanical Gardens. It is now doubly opportune to ponder, compare and evaluate the strivings of Walter Hill (as well as his successors) who, from the small six acre Botanical Reserve hewn from the original native scrub of Brisbane Town, reclaimed, developed and beautified the Gardens as they are nowadays. Walter Hill did not happily retire from his sphere of activity. Tranquility would even seem to now permeate the stones which form the base of the dwarf wall facing Alice Street. These blocks of stones once formed the walls of the early Brisbane Gaol in Petrie Terrace built by Andrew Petrie in 1854, and when the Gaol was demolished after the erection of the Boggo Road Gaol in 1881, an entirely different and peaceful environment from the turbulent former surroundings was found for them as a base in the Gardens iron‑railed fence.

 

THE DISTRICT OF BOGGO

The suburban district of Boggo, (a corruption of Bolgo) was situated in that area of land bounded by the South Brisbane Cemetery, the Brisbane River, Long Pocket Reach and up along the river to the area east of the Salvation Army Girls' Home.

The eastern Boundary, by present day landmarks, would be the railway line from the Boggo Junction (now called Dutton Park) Station and the Fairfield and Yeronga Railway Stations. Venner Road and Hyde Road in present times, run right through the centre of the area‑east to west. From the early 1860's until comparatively recently, Boggo was a rich farming centre of approximately 700 acres divided into twenty farming blocks.

Boggo Road led to this settlement and ran from the Clarence Hotel or corner when the One Mile Swamp was on the left hand side opposite the Mater Misericordiae Hospital. The corruption of the name from Bolgo to Boggo was no tax on the imagination owing to the boggy state of the track which lay in the low lying area between the hills on both sides.

About forty five years ago, the name of Boggo Road was changed to Annerley Road in honour of Hon. D. F. Denham, the Premier of Queensland at that time.

It was his birthplace in England. Boggo Road Gaol still bears the original name.

THE BREAKFAST CREEK BRIDGE

In the long ago, when Moreton Bay Settlement was only free to those Government officials who had charge of the hundreds of convicts, a bridge over Breakfast Creek, which runs into the Brisbane River, was a pressing need.

The requirements of frequent supplies, official communications and supervision of the female convicts at their Eagle Farm quarters were the chief reasons for having uninterrupted road connection therewith. However, although much convict labour was available to build a bridge, the only means of crossing Breakfast Creek was by a roughly constructed punt. Some work had been done on Eagle Farm road to excavate a cutting on the river bank.

In the 1840's a small narrow footbridge with a handrail had been erected and was later replaced by a traffic bridge.

The land which now comprises Newstead Park was once the property of Patrick Leslie who sold it to Captain J. C. Wickham in August 1847. The traffic bridge was subsequently built in August 1848, but one of the piles which had been insecurely driven, collapsed in May 1849. The tidal waters finally washed away the remains by December of that year.

Several settlers petitioned Capt. Wickham the Government Resident of those days, to find ways of providing a new bridge. They were Dr. David K. Ballow, Dr. Wm. Hobbs, W. A. Duncan, J. Richardson, Ambrose Aldridge, James Gibbon, James Swan, J. Powers, G. F. Poole, Dr. J. Kearsey Cannan, Richard Coley and George Edmonstone.

The meeting was held in the old Court House in Queen Street, Brisbane, which then stood about thirty yards from the corner of Albert Street. A proposal was put forward that a dam be built with a roadway thereon but the bridge plan was adopted. The successful tenderer was a contractor named Atkinson and the bridge was erected under the supervision of David F. Longland who was Chief Foreman in the Roads and Bridges Department.

The bridge, built of ironbark, was of three arches 176 feet long, 15 feet wide, and was opened on the 21st August 1858. Some damage occurred due to subsidence but the bridge was considered safe and suitable for traffic until the early part of 1887.

The respectively adjacent controlling authorities of those days, the Divisional Boards of Toombul and Booroodabin considered that a new bridge was necessary. The Breakfast Creek Bridge Board was constituted and comprised the following members‑W. M. Galloway (Mayor of Brisbane), President, Wm. Widdop (Chairman of Toombul Divisional Board), Robert Dath (Chairman of Booroodabin Divisional Board), A. L. Petrie and John Watson M.L.A. Thos. J. Ballinger was the Secretary, and Geo. S. Simkin, C.E., Engineer in charge of construction. Plans and specifications were prepared by J. H. Daniells, Engineer for Bridges in the Government Department of Works and the builders were A. Overend and Co.

Work commenced in February 1888, but it was subsequently realised during the progress of construction that the bridge‑if the materials according to the specified plans were followed‑would be 15 feet too short on the southern end where the present stone embankment now stands.

The work of construction was held up for ten weeks pending lengthy arbitration on the question of the additional cost which, of course, arose from this insufficient length. It was shown that the Bridge Board, for reasons best known to itself, had placed the bridge at an oblique angle across the Creek instead of at right angles, knowing at the time that the cost would be increased thereby. The Government was called on to pay as compensation for extra work the sum of £1234.

The engineer, J. H. Daniells only prepared the plans and specifications and he had nothing to do with the actual erection of the bridge. The structure was designed to be built on the same site as the previous bridge as it was economical so to do, and from the information regarding the “made" ground on the Creek where the Eastern abutment is now placed, evidence of the old bridge alignment may still be seen at low water mark on the northern right hand side opposite the Breakfast Creek Hotel. Had the bridge been built on the site of the original bridge alignment a great deal of expense would have been spared (a saving of 20% on construction costs) and there would have been no necessity to build the substantial retaining wall on the southern end to artificially lengthen by 15 feet the short‑constructed bridge, nor to resume additional land.

The construction of the bridge seemed to have had the malignant fate of being a source of trouble from start to finish. Even at the near completion of the bridge, trouble developed with the work of decking. The specifications provided for wood paving blocks to be set in tar and pitch. Difficulty was experienced by the fact that the blocks became loose in the hot weather during the laying of same and it was not considered advisable to continue this method. Streams of tar ran down the abutment and piles.

The blocks were then set in concrete but heavy rain loosened the side blocks and they crept up. However the bridge was eventually opened on 24th May 1889. The tender price was £8341.

The effective life of the 1889 Breakfast Creek Bridge ended after nearly three quarters of a century of early Brisbane life and activities. Over it has passed the bullock wagon, the teamster with his horses, farmers' wagons with produce from the prosperous Boggy Creek (Pinkenba) and Nudgee farms, the pony sulkies, carriages, phaetons, buggies, waggonettes, hansom cabs, horse drawn omnibuses, horse drawn trams, the electric tram, motor car and the motor truck.

It has carried the conveyances of all kinds and manner of men‑some who have become Kings and Queens of England, the Soldiers of the Boer War, the Soldiers of World War I and II, and the American Soldiers, and possibly millions of those in the trafficking of every day life.

Like so many things in life, the bridge has had its day and will be dismantled, removed, and will be no more. The initials of W. M. Galloway (“WMG" which appear on the facade of the Breakfast Creek Hotel) and who was the president of the Bridge Board, will continue to look down as a reminder while the stone tablet inscribed with the names of the Board will continue to remain attached to the verandah wall of Newstead House, Brisbane.

WULONKOPPA (Woolloongabba)

If it be true that a Frenchman can only speak English with a French accent, then similarly we in Australia who in speaking English can only pronounce the various aboriginal names with our own accent.

Most aboriginal names have been anglicized and euphemized e.g. (Wulon-koppa to Woolloongabba) (Nyindurupilly to Indooroopilly) and the like.

The name of Woolloongabba, to give it the everyday modern spelling, is derived from the words “Wooloon" fight talk and “gabba" a place. The favourite fighting place of the tribes south of Brisbane was at Woolloongabba.

Two ridges (Vulture St. and Hawthorne St.) near each other ran along each side of the Woolloongabba Railway Goods Yards. The railway levels occupied about the site of the narrow flat that lay between these ridges.

It formed a neutral ground upon which the foot of hostile foemen dare not tread.

The neutral place was preserved on all “sullen pullen" or fighting grounds. On

these opposite ridges the opposing tribes ranged themselves.

        A Bora (ceremonial) ring and Bora-ground existed behind the site of the Railway Hotel Woolloongabba.

BRISBANE STREETS

The streets and roads of Brisbane reveal a wide range of origin.

They stem from British Royalty, British Statesmen, Mayors, Councillors, Aldermen, early landowners, names of the sailing ships which brought the early settlers, some place of cherished memory in the home country, and various geographical features together with Australian robustious, army leaders, and many varied obscure and strangely variegated sources.

PETRIES BIGHT, BRISBANE

One of the busiest thoroughfares in the city of Brisbane was that part of Queen Street which ran from Wharf Street to the intersection of Boundary Street.

The immediately adjacent area, known as Petries Bight, was named after Andrew Petrie who came from Sydney in 1837 to Brisbane Town, which in those days was merely an outlying penal settlement of New South Wales.

Andrew Petrie was born in Fifeshire Scotland, in June 1798, but early in life went to Edinburgh where he held a position with a leading building construction firm and for a period of four years was engaged in Architectural duties.

He entered into business on his own account but on the suggestion of Dr. John Lang who was re‑visiting Scotland at that time, Andrew Petrie came to New South Wales in 1831 by the Stirling Castle.

His first job was to supervise the erection of a building for Dr. John Lang in Jamieson Street, Sydney, but later commenced business for himself.

Commissary Laidley became aware of Petrie's ability and offered him a position in the Royal Engineers at Sydney as Clerk of Works.

In August 1837 Petrie and his family came to Brisbane in the James Watt the first steamer to plough the waters of Moreton Bay. The underlying reason of Petrie's transfer to this town was that as a practical Superintendent of Works he was to supersede the junior military officers who, with only limited architectural and constructional experience, had erected buildings of inferior design and without substantially skilled workmanship (e.g. the walls of the old Police Court in Queen Street midway between George and Albert Streets were unbuttressed).

On Petrie's arrival, the only available accommodation was in the official quarters of the Female Prisoners Barracks, then only recently vacated when the inmates were moved to the new Eagle Farm Prison. The original Female Prisoners Barracks were situated in the area of the present General Post Office. Petrie commenced his duties and he was given control and supervision of the better class of prisoners and mechanics and others. The workshop was on the site of the present Prudential Assurance Co. Ltd. building at the top of Queen Street.

Petrie soon afterwards removed to a house provided for him at the corner of what is now Queen and Wharf Streets. At that time, 1839, Queen Street was occupied by Government and Military buildings on the western side from North Quay to the corner of Albert Street and then continued as a winding bush track from where Edward Street now stands, in a semi‑circular track to avoid the knoll there to where it crossed the creek at the present‑day intersection of Queen and Creek Streets. It continued towards the river and on to Petries Bight and became the Eagle Farm Road (now termed Ann Street). There was no development past Albert Street.

This road avoided the tapering cliff which runs from Adelaide Street towards the river by running much closer to the waters edge than the present alignment of Queen Street at the Petries Bight end. In Petrie's day the road ran about 110 feet from the river whereas nowadays it is situated about 430 feet distant. The area on the opposite of the Customs House towards Adelaide Street was largely stone and was patiently quarried, removed, levelled and carted by horse and dray.

Petries Bight on the river side from the Customs House was the site of the Government Reserve where the Government Wharves for commercial purposes were first built. The dividing fence had encroached 16 feet upon the road and when the wharves were being constructed in 1877, the Government in consideration of the requirements of traffic consented to give 10 feet from the wharf reserve. This is the explanation why Queen Street at the Petries Bight portion is 26 feet wider than in its other parts. The substantial stone wall opposite the wharves was constructed in 1882 and prevented the numerous land slides which had occurred and this wall, together with that built on the land on which the Customs House stands, enabled the present day level thoroughfare to be there.

Much could be written were space available, of Andrew Petrie regarding his journeys of exploration, his courage when he had the heavy hand of sorrow placed in the loss of the precious gift of eyesight during the last quarter of a century of his life, his maintenance of the greatest possible interest in his business affairs and in the town he had seen grow from a tiny settlement.

One evidence of his early and remarkable forethought was that when his official house (as Superintendent of Works) was being planned, he stipulated that it be lined up on a frontage with the then existing Government buildings in the area in Queen Street from George to Albert Streets, the then termination of the settled area. His house was on the comer of what is now Queen and Wharf Streets. True to his prophecy, Queen Street was eventually continued past his house and it was on that comer (later the site of Empire Chambers) that Andrew Petrie's children waved their flags of welcome to Queensland's first Governor Sir George Bowen.

Andrew Petrie died on 20th February 1872, but his name is immortally associated with Petries Bight, Petrie Terrace, and the suburb of Petrie (through his son). It is the enduring honour due to the young Scotsman from Fifeshire who journeyed 13,000 miles to this then little known land in the year 1831, lived thirty four years in this town from its earliest beginnings and thus became our first free settler.

FLAVELLE STREET, SANKEY STREET AND SANKEY ROAD, BRISBANE,

        These three thoroughfares were named after two members of the long

established jewellery, watchmaking and optical firm (1863) of Flavelle Roberts and Sankey Ltd. The premises of this firm were, until its trading operations ceased in 1949, in those later occupied by Rockmans Ltd., 150 Queen Street Brisbane.

        The original name was Flavelle Bros. & Co. and later became Flavelle Bros. and Roberts, while for many years the name was Flavelle Roberts and Sankey Ltd.

        It was to this firm of Flavelle Bros. that James Nash, the discoverer, in 1868, of the Gympie goldfield brought the 621 ounces of gold for testing and weighing by Mr. Flavelle. This fortuitous discovery of gold was a matter of the utmost importance to the then Colony of Queensland‑a mere nine years established with scant population, few industries, the finances in a parlous state and the general prospects not bright. Production of gold from Gympie was 1,320,000 ounces in the following twenty years and the resultant financial stimulus put Queensland on the map, as it were, and kept it there.

        An historical link is also attached to the fact that Flavelle Roberts and Sankey Ltd. displayed in their shop windows, the first three ingots of tin smelted in Queensland. The smelting was done in 1872 by Hipwood and Sutton at their foundry in Eagle Street, Brisbane.

        Major J. R. Sankey, a partner of the firm, was also actively interested in the Volunteer Military Forces in the 1900s.

        He owned three blocks of land aggregating 395 acres to the south east of White's Hill and also near Pine Mountain.

        Sankey Mountain is also named after him.

        Threads of history often appear in most unlooked for places.

        In the peaceful suburb of Belmont, a little over four miles from the scene of their former activities, three quiet thoroughfares, by their names perpetuate the names of H. Flavelle and J. R. Sankey, in whose shop the first gold from Gympie was weighed.

JOHN WILLIAMS – EARLY BRISBANE SETTLER

                In whatever period of history the general activities of mankind are considered, it generally will be found that whether in the field of discovery, development, improvement, initiative, or where some progressive change occurs, it is due to the active enterprise of some one person.

        The bestowal of this distinction, as far as the beginning of trading in the Colony (now State) of Queensland was concerned, could well be placed on the name of John Williams.

        He was born in Somersetshire England in 1797 and as a young man engaged in a seafaring career. After his arrival in Australia, he settled in Sydney N.S.W. for some years and in the year 1841, when the idea of furthering his interests came to his mind, he sought permission from the New South Wales Government to come to the northern part of that Colony‑the Moreton Bay Settlement which is now, of course, contained in the present State of Queensland.

        Permission to trade was duly given to John Williams by the Colonial Secretary of New South Wales, and, as was quaintly put, to squat, i.e. to settle without title, on the banks of the Brisbane River (at South Brisbane) which, at that time was  public land.

        Williams arrived in 1841, about two years before the first land sale to the public was held. The land then sold at that sale was eight allotments of 36 perches situated on the eastern side of Queen Street from the corner of George Street to Albert Street. Subsequently, an additional eight allotments of a similar area were sold and extended to the corner of Edward Street.

        The Permit to trade was numbered 1 and was granted to him to open a store for the sale of any goods excepting ammunition and spirituous liquors. In the light of modern acceptance of the now prevailing less restricted conditions, the full importance of this permit may not be fully recognised until the fact that for a considerable period after the cessation of the Penal Settlement, no person was allowed to come within 50 miles of Brisbane, is taken into account.

        A small store and house were built on the corner of Russell and Hope Streets from a shipment of sawn timber which Williams had brought from Sydney. Local slabs of timber for the outer walls and bark for the roof were used. Subsequently he built a long (50 feet) one storeyed building in Russell Street and called it the Captain Piper Hotel the licence No. 1 for which was issued in April 1843. This hotel was situated on the main track from Ipswich to Brisbane via Boggo (Annerley) Road and traffic went over the river by the Russell Street ferry.

        It thus was Queensland’s (Moreton Bay Settlement) first hotel and the supplies of beer were brought from Sydney.

        The residence of John Williams was the first privately one built in Brisbane Town (cf. Andrew Petrie's residence was an official one built by the New South Wales Government for him as Clerk of Works).

        The sailing ketch John ‑the first ship to trade to Brisbane had been placed on the run from Sydney in 1841 by Williams. This small vessel of 35 tons register was replaced by the larger schooner Edward of 80 tons and in addition a steamer occasionally brought supplies.

        John Williams commenced business by supplying the pioneer squatters and subsequently, those who followed in the area now known as the Darling Downs.

        He expanded his efforts in the search for coal which, he foresaw, would be required by the steamers for the return journey to Sydney. In 1843 he made an extensive search for coal and the first shaft he put down at Fairfield, Brisbane, was unsuccessful, but he subsequently found it at Softstone on Oxley Creek about eight miles from Brisbane.

        After working this area for some time he abandoned it when he discovered an outcrop at Redbank about 16 miles from Brisbane. The Redbank seam was worked for some years but later he moved his coal plant to Moggill (a few miles further from Redbank) where large quantities of fine coal were obtained. He had thus accomplished the object he had set out to do., that of supplying the steamers which called here with sufficient and suitable coal for their requirements. John Williams disposed of his coal interests at a satisfactory figure to a group of residents in the Moggill district.

        His business interests included the building of punts for use in conveying supplies to and returning with wool from the head of navigation of the Brisbane River at Limestone as Ipswich was then called.

        In 1843 he lodged a tender with the New South Wales Government for the lease of the punt ferry which was then officially established between North and South Brisbane for the first time, to carry passengers and cargo.

        After retiring from the coal business, he built the S.S. Gneering a stern-wheeled paddle steamer and several barges for the carriage of timber which he carried on for some years. He also made several further attempts to find coal in the area of Bulimba east towards the present Brisbane Abattoirs but was unsuccessful as the seams were only a few inches thick. These efforts caused him the loss of a great deal of money.

        In this district, he established an orchard in his area of land which consisted of 49 acres bounded respectively by Lytton, Queensport and Creek Roads. This area is nowadays identifiable as the resting paddocks of Thomas Borthwick and Sons Ltd. Meatworks at Queensport on the Brisbane River.

        John Williams died on 18th September 1872 at the age of 75 years and was buried in Milton General Cemetery then situated between Milton and Cemetery Roads (Hale St.) and the area north of Caxton Street towards the foot of Red Hill. This cemetery was closed in 1875, after the opening of Toowong Cemetery in 1872 and the site was eventually resumed for playing fields, and some of those buried there were re‑interred in other burial grounds.

        That portion of the area between Milton Road and Caxton Street is now known as Lang Park.

        He had been the first settler to come to Brisbane Town outside the Moreton Bay Penal Settlement apart from the officials thereof. Andrew Petrie had come to that area as an official occupying the position as Clerk of Works and when he relinquished his official duties he remained as a free settler.

        Although John Williams was our first trader, free settler, the discoverer of our first coal and altogether a man of outstanding enterprise, he, like the epochal incidence of Separation (from New South Wales) has had no commemorative column raised in his honour. Perhaps he died at a time when the rapidly growing population was composed of cautiously reserved newcomers who were slow to stir in recognition and commemoration. It may have been that general intercourse and communications were aloof and distant or that the struggle for existence in those far off days in this young State, with its primeval conditions, precluded the engaging of mellowing thoughts of worthy remembrance of a pioneer.

        It is perhaps safe to assume that John Williams in the last seven years of his life spent with his wife and son on his snug little farm and orchard perceived his own monument enshrined in the confident resource, industry and progress of the 10,570 people who lived in Brisbane Town in the year 1872‑the year in which he had the Great Experience of life and death and time and eternity.

MAYNARD STREET (BURANDA, BRISBANE)

Henry A. Maynard was Chairman of the Woolloongabba Divisional Board in 1882. These Boards were the forerunners of Municipal Councils. He was also manager of the East Brisbane Rope and Cordage Works and resided in Boundary Street (now called Manilla Street) near Mowbray Park, East Brisbane.

Mr. Maynard instituted the practice of having permanent levels fixed of leading thoroughfares in each sub‑division under the control of the Board. This proposal was a sound step, particularly for those building premises at ground level on thoroughfares, which in those days were often unformed, unstumped and owners of premises, after building a shop or dwelling, often had the level of the ground floor situated below the level of the street.

MOWBRAYTOWN‑A BRISBANE SUBURB

The suburb of Mowbraytown situated in the eastern part of Brisbane was named after the Rev. Thos. Mowbray, M.A. He was a native of Hamilton, Scotland, born in 1812 and educated at the University of Glasgow where he began his studies in 1829. The degree of M.A. was conferred on him in 1834, and he entered the ministry soon afterwards.

During the year 1841, he came to Australia and settled at Campblefield, Port Phillip district now known as the State of Victoria. He engaged in Church duties at this place and remained there until the end of 1847 when he went to Sydney on similar work for another three years. However, owing to failing health and acting on medical advice, he came to Brisbane in the Moreton Bay Settlement. His health considerably improved and he established a school in the grounds of his home “Riversdale" situated in an area of 11 acres which is now known as Mowbray Park. The residence of Thomas Mowbray was built on the site of the present bandstand in the Park.

In the period of time he resided in the suburb which was named after him, he purchased a considerable area of land consisting of eight blocks aggregating 83 acres. This land was (exclusive of the land now known as Mowbray Park) bounded by Lytton Road, Geelong, Latrobe, Stafford, Northcote Streets and Mowbray Terrace and extended through Vulture, Lisburn, Lucinda and Mountjoy Streets to Logan Road. The subdivision of this area ie. between Lytton Road and Mowbray Terrace is unique in the fact that the blocks of residential sites extend for about 22 chains, which is more than twice the distance nowadays for an intersecting street to provide facilities for easy communication to the adjacent streets.

He did not, owing to his state of health, engage in the active duties of the ministry but occasionally conducted sermons in various churches. His genial manner, charitable activities and his sterling character drew towards him a wide circle of friends.

On 23rd December 1867 at the age of 55 years, the Rev. Thomas Mowbray passed to his rest and joined the Great Majority. His widow and family survived him and resided at the original home for some years.

As in so many instances of early day Brisbane, district names like that of Mowbraytown have been absorbed in the comprehensive one of East Brisbane, itself a misnomer‑as much of that area so called is further south than is South Brisbane. An altered destination sign on an omnibus or tram, the absence of a post office so named or police station i.e. Mowbraytown, all tend, in the effluxion of time‑as old residents once familiar with the name quietly pass on‑to slowly but surely discard the localised name.

Thomas Mowbray, however, has had his name perpetuated in the names of Mowbray Park, and Mowbray Terrace while several businesses have prefixed

The words Mowbray Park to their business titles. The word Mowbraytown does,

however, in lone instance, appear in the naming of the Mowbraytown Presbyterian

Church.

BRISBANE STREET NAMES-HOWARD STREET (ROSALIE) PAYNE STREET (TORWOOD) and PAYNE STREET (TARINGA)

These streets were named after Henry Howard Payne, one of the early settlers. He was born in Sleaford, Lincolnshire, England in 1822 and arrived in Moreton Bay Settlement, Brisbane in January 1851.

Soon after his arrival at Brisbane, he commenced business as a plumber in Queen Street, later moved to Elizabeth Street, and continued to carry on that trade for about ten years. He disposed of his business to Hiram Wakefield.

Henry Howard Payne was the first man to cultivate the soil on the north side of the river, the original lands at Milton, where he attempted the growing of cotton. He and his partner Adsett owned 12 acres of land situated at the corner of Milton and Baroona Roads.

Subsequently he moved to the Gap in the Ashgrove district Brisbane and was familiarly known as Payne of the Gap. His activities there included the growing of grapes for wine making, as well as farming and cattle raising. The general welfare of the Enoggera district was constantly in his mind and he rendered much valuable assistance in that regard. He took up land in the Samford district and was the first to cross the Samford Range by bullock dray. The formation of roads in that area was largely due to his efforts and this was duly acknowledged by the Public Works Department in 1874.

While at Samford, he had sad personal tragedy in the death of his son through a horse accident and soon afterwards returned to Milton.

Among his several activities, he was an energetic member of the East Moreton Farmers' Association and when in 1878, that body amalgamated with the Royal National and Agricultural Association, he was presented with an illuminated address.

His municipal career commenced in 1880 as a member of the Indooroopilly Divisional Board which administered the provisions of local government prior to the amalgamation of all such authorities into the Brisbane City Council (Greater Brisbane area). The Indooroopilly Divisional Board was absorbed into the adjoining Toowong Shire Council and Henry Payne continued his activities there. Payne Street Taringa, close to Toowong thus honours his association on that Shire Council.

Henry Payne was actively on the Ratepayers' Association of the districts surrounding his home‑Milton, Rosalie, Bayswater and Torwood. He declined to enter the political field, although so requested on several occasions, as he had a deep consideration for his personal home life.

Henry Howard Payne passed to his rest in February 1903 at the age of 81 years.

STAMM STREET, INDOOROOPILLY

Stamm Street, Indooroopilly, commemorates the name of Louis Stamm who was born in England in 1808 when his parents were on a visit to that place.

He was of Polish descent and his father was a Colonel of Engineers in the Prussian Army.

Stamm was educated at Breslau (Wroclaw) Poland and later at a military school at Glangan and subsequently followed a military career during which he saw a good deal of service.

He travelled to America where he engaged in business but did not have much success. At the age of forty five years, he came to Australia and was in the employ of the Hon. James Taylor in Toowoomba for some time. During his stay in that town he engaged in several business activities such as timber merchant, architect, surveyor, builder, newspaper proprietor, and brewery owner.

In the 1860's he came to Brisbane and purchased land on the western side of the now existing Indooroopilly Railway station, about five miles from Brisbane and continuing towards the Stamford Hotel also in that district. The area of his land totalled 170 acres and was bought for an average price of £4.10s.0d per acre. When the railway was built towards the Albert Bridge, Indooroopilly, it ran through the paddocks originally owned by Louis Stamm.

In 1888, he realised on his land, and cultivated the small area which he retained.

Louis Stamm was twice an alderman for the North Ward of the Brisbane Municipal Council (as then called).

He came from a long living family-his father was 114 and his mother 78 years at the time of their respective deaths, while Louis himself passed away at 95 years in February 1903.

He lived at Herbert Street in the Wickham Terrace area Brisbane. His life had been a colourful one in business, in his travels, and his experience as a child on his parents' farm at Posen when the great Napoleon on his retreat from Moscow spoke to him. This incident was vividly impressed on his mind‑the stern look and the eagle eye of this great warrior. Stamm Street is probably the only street in the Southern Hemisphere which can thus claim historical link with Napoleon.

O'CONNELLTOWN‑AN EARLY BRISBANE SUBURB

The suburb of O'Connelltown was named after Sir Maurice O'Connell.

It comprised the area bounded by the present day names of Swan Hill, Bowen Bridge, Windsor Railway Station, and the land between the railway line with the upper reach of Breakfast Creek forming the eastern boundary along to Lutwyche Road.

The Eildon Post Office could be regarded as the centre of this suburb.

“Rosemount" was the residence of Sir Maurice and Lady O'Connell. This house was, for many years later the property of the late Alfred Jones one of the partners of Gordon and Gotch, Brisbane, and was handed over to the military authorities after the 1914‑1918 World War as a military hospital. Several additions have been made to the original buildings and the official name now then became the Rosemount Orthopaedic Department.

As in the case of the names of so many earlier and similarly small suburbs which have no definite feature, apart from the usage thereof by old residents, to perpetuate the name, O'Connelltown shared a like fate. The last general use of this name was when it appeared on the side destination signs of the horse drawn omnibuses until these were superseded by the advent of electric traction and the subsequent tramway extensions firstly to Bowen Bridge and secondly in 1914 to Windsor. The name O'Connelltown has been absorbed into that of Windsor the larger adjoining Suburb.

Maurice O'Connell was the eldest son of Sir Maurice O'Connell and his wife Mary, who was the daughter of Admiral Bligh, that remarkable man who had the adventure and suffering by the mutiny of the Bounty and being deposed as the Governor of New South Wales.

Maurice O'Connell was descended on his paternal side from the family of which Daniel O'Connell the eminent Irish political figure was a member. He was born in January 1812 and his birthplace was in the officers quarters in the Military Barracks which were on the site now known as Wynyard Square Sydney. Barrack Street leading from the Sydney General Post Office is the historical link of this locality.

In his early childhood, Maurice O'Connell accompanied his family to Ceylon where his father was appointed to a military post. Young Maurice left there in 1819 to journey to England where he began his educational studies at Dr. Pinkney's Academy and later at Edinburgh High School. Further studies were taken in Dublin and Paris, also at the College of Charlemagne until 1828. Maurice O'Connell became an ensign at the age of 16 years and joined the 78th Regiment at Gibraltar and other Mediterranean stations especially at Malta where he, and Samuel W. Blackall first met while both were but young subalterns. (Samuel W. Blackall in later life became Governor of Queensland).

Maurice O'Connell went to Jersey in the Channel Islands in 1835 and on 23rd July of that year he married Eliza Emeline, the daughter of Colonel Le Geyt of the 63rd Regiment.

The name of Le Geyt Street which runs off Lutwyche Road was on the northern boundary of the property of Sir Maurice O'Connell, “Rosemount." and thus perpetuates his wife's maiden name.

Under the orders of the Council of William IV permitting British subjects to raise an army for a foreign power, O'Connell raised a regiment in County Cork of the British Legion. He was gazetted Lieutenant Colonel and the force was called the 10th Munster Light Infantry.

Maurice O'Connell became Colonel and later Adjutant General. The regiment was formed for service under Isabella of Spain. It was disbanded in 1837 and O'Connell returned to England where he was appointed to the 51st Regiment and subsequently became Captain of the 28th Regiment well known in Sydney.

On his father's return to New South Wales in command of troops in Australia, he accompanied him as a member of his staff. When Captain Maurice O'Connell's regiment was recalled from colonial service he retired from military activities and devoted himself to the more peaceful pursuits of becoming a pastoral tenant and enthusiastically entered into squatting and bred horses for the Indian market. He also took an active part in social and political movements in New South Wales for ten years and was elected as representative of Port Phillip which was, at that time, a portion of New South Wales.

He was appointed in 1848 as Commissioner of Crown Lands for the Burnett, the northern extremity of Australian Colonisations.

In the year 1853, he was requested to undertake the settlement of Port Curtis and after defining the boundaries of Wide Bay, the Burnett, Port Curtis was established. He remained in that district at Gladstone as Government Resident from 1854 until Queensland became a separate Colony in 1859 and, of course, Port Curtis was consequently included in the new Colony.

While stationed at Port Curtis Captain O'Connell, in the face of much discouragement and at considerable cost from his private means, carried on the settlement of that district from the commencement until his office was abolished in 1859. He had found, on his arrival, in 1854 that the district was almost a deserted and under‑developed tract of country but, when he left in 1860 it was on the way to becoming a prosperous community. Much assistance was given by him in the search for gold at Canoona, firstly, by forming the plan of the search, and then by financial assistance. However, the search was not very successful, but it stimulated the impetus to continue the search in other possible goldfields.

On the constitution of the Colony of Queensland, no provision was made in the Civil List on the abandonment of his position. He was nominated by Governor Sir George Bowen as a Member of the first Legislative Council in 1860. (The members of the Legislative Council of the young Colony of Queensland were first appointed for five years only, and upon the expiration of that period they were appointed for life).

In May 1865 Captain O'Connell's Commission was renewed. After the departure of Governor Bowen, he took over the administration and acted as Governor until the arrival of the incoming Governor Blackall. He similarly, acted on three other occasions.

Sir Maurice O'Connell devoted himself to many activities such as the Acclimatisation Society at Bowen Park, Brisbane‑a Society formed in 1863 to introduce, propagate and distribute useful plants from overseas countries to this State. The Queensland Turf Club was another interest.

In his early military career, by special license of Her Majesty the late Queen Victoria, he was permitted to receive the order Knight Commander of Isabella the Catholic of Spain, Knight Commander, Second Class of San Fernando, Cross of Honour Extraordinary of Charles III of Spain.

He was created a K.C.M.G. in the year 1868.

On the 23rd of March 1879 he passed to his rest. During his life he was respected for his charm of grace, deportment, his innate kindness, benevolence, and earned the admiration of a multitude of early colonists.

Life, the Great Enigma, together with the long arm of coincidence and the whirling of fortune, can produce quaint quirks and novel situations which no striving author could effectuate. Few will deny that this is not so in the respective lives of the two young subaltems once stationed in Malta, who, after the vicissitudes of half a century of life, peacefully sleep their last long sleep in Toowong Cemetery, Brisbane, in opposite graves only five yards from each other‑Governor Colonel Samuel Wensley Blackall, and Sir Maurice Charles O'Connell of O'Connelltown.

CLEWLEY ROAD and MARTINDALE STREET, CORINDA

Charles Clewley Martindale was an early resident of the Oxley District (1868). He was treasurer of the Brisbane River Pioneer Sugar Co. Ltd. and owned 31 acres of land on Oxley Creek.

JOHN BUHOT‑THE EARLY SUGAR PIONEER

John Buhot and his wife left London in the sailing ship Montmorency on 28th  December 1861 and arrived in Moreton Bay, Brisbane on 11th April 1862.

He had previous experience as a sugar planter at Barbados in the West Indies. Soon after his arrival he was offered a managing position on a sheep station due no doubt to the fact that he held letters of introduction to several influential colonists. However, in view of his previous experience in the sugar industry, he decided to remain in that sphere of activity. His entry to that industry and the opportunity to make granulated sugar was not easy as previous attempts by other colonists had been unsuccessful and had been carried out at a good deal of expense. One difficulty, which others had experienced was in the quality of the colonial lime. However, John Buhot was encouraged and urged not to fail by George Raff, who was one of the several friends to whom he had a letter of introduction on his arrival in the colony.

John Buhot, who was sure of his ability to make sugar if suitable canes were available, visited Walter Hill, the then Curator of the Botanical Reserve (now included in the present day Botanical Gardens). Walter Hill gave him much assistance in the selection of suitable sugar canes and Buhot acknowledged this valuable help, without which, in his opinion, he would not have succeeded in his task. Every assistance and encouragement was also given by Captain Louis Hope, Dr. Hobbs, William Brookes and George Edmondstone, M.L.A. Andrew Petrie made the small trays, coolers and incidental apparatus free of expense at his own workshop.

The canes available at the Botanical Reserve were immature, as the best canes had been taken for previous attempts for the making of sugar by others. Buhot, in the circumstances, selected the best available canes. He crushed them in the shop of William Brookes at 143 Queen Street, Brisbane (Brookes and Foster Ironmongers). The liquor was tempered and clarified in public on the footpath outside and then taken to the Botanical Reserve (Botanical Gardens) where, under the close observation of all those present granulated sugar was first made in the Colony of Queensland. The quantity was approximately five pounds from seven gallons of liquor.

Buhot used the coral lime of Moreton Bay which he obtained from Andrew

Petrie for tempering the liquor. A present of a small quantity of sugar was given to him, as he was the oldest colonist, to sweeten his tea. Petrie was delighted to have, had that day, the satisfaction of using sugar actually produced in Brisbane and prophesied that John Buhot had laid the foundation of what would be Queensland's source of wealth.

      He was requested by Captain Louis Hope to experiment in the manufacture of sugar from ribbon and Bourbon cane then growing in his garden and the result was again successful. Offers of employment as a result of his success, poured in but he chose to be employed by Captain Louis Hope of Cleveland.

      He assisted George Raff of the Caboolture Cotton Company with some cane he brought from Cleveland. In 1864, he lectured in Maryborough on the subject of sugar, planted cane for Thos. Petrie, Hon. C. B. Whish, M.L.A. and was actively associated with practically all the early ventures of sugar cane growing in the southern portion of the Colony of Queensland. The Select Parliamentary Committee appointed in 1867 found that sugar was first manufactured by John Buhot in 1862. A recommendation was made by this Committee that a grant of 500 acres be made to him for his services to the industry.

      John Buhot was manager of the Pearlwell Sugar Mill at Oxley Creek near Brisbane in 1872 and remained there until his contract expired. He was, however, not successful in his business activities. His home, a large many roomed one with verandahs surrounding it, wooden shingled roof, papered walls and stately in appearance set in spacious grounds ornamented with bunya pine and ornamental trees stood in its original state after he vacated it and a private school was conducted by Miss Thompson.

      On the 30th July 1890 it was taken over by the Education Department and became the Mount Pleasant School on Logan Road, Brisbane. The school was carried on as the Dunellan State School for many years afterwards in the original home (with some essential alterations) until it was demolished and the present school (now known as Greenslopes School) had the name changed in 1923.

      Buhot's house was built on the highest portion of the area, which has, of course, been extended both on the eastern and western sides. It was situated on the top end of the original Dunellan Estate, which ran from the creek in Juliette Street to the Logan Road. The original area of Buhot's land was 56 acres which he purchased on 9 March 1874.

      The passenger list of the ship Montmorency shows the particulars of the arrival in Moreton Bay, Brisbane on 11th April 1862 and on which the names (among others) were:

John Buhot age 31 years nationality English carpenter

Jessie Buhot age 22 years nationality English home duties

     Millions of tons of sugar have been produced in Queensland since the day in 1862 when John Buhot first produced his five pounds‑and a king's ransom would not be enough nowadays to purchase the yearly output. Historically, there is nothing to perpetuate the name of this worthy pioneer, except it be a ten chain dead‑ended street (Buhot Street) in an obscure part of the quiet suburb of Geebung, eight miles from the centre of Brisbane or the long row of fig trees which grow on the riverside of Quay Street, Rockhampton and which were planted by him. No stately column has yet arisen in his honour in the Botanical Reserve which, in modern identification of location would be where the actual event of sugar granulation took place‑in the vicinity of the Edward Street entrance in the Botanical Gardens.                                                

COOKSLEY STREET.

This street was named after William John Farmer Cooksley who arrived in Moreton Bay in the year 1858. He was born in Somersetshire England in 1836. Cooksley was the first to build a cottage at Sandgate where he also invested in property at that seaside resort. Among his activities were the directorship of two of the most successful building societies in Brisbane at their early stages of development.

In 1881 he was Alderman for the first borough of Sandgate and Mayor in 1885. He later sat as a member of the Toombul Divisional Board and when that authority was subdivided and the Hamilton Divisional Board formed he became a member of the latter.

Cooksley passed away on 5June 1892. The street which perpetuates his name is in the Breakfast Creek area in which he lived and is situated about 600 yards from the bridge on the left hand side running towards Hamilton.

CRACKNELL ROAD.

W. J. Cracknell was Superintendent of Electric Telegraphs in Queensland from the early 1860's until the 1880's.

He lived in the road which was named after him almost a mile from where it joins the main Ipswich Road at Annerley Brisbane. His house of five rooms was unfortunately burned down through the firewood falling to the floor from the stove during a short absence of the servant.

He also lived in the Electric Telegraph Office in William Street, Brisbane identifiable nowadays as the Lands Office on the corner of William St. and Stephens Lane. Among his many official activities was his appointment to the committee of three who were delegated to prepare arrangements to deal with the threatened invasion of the Russians in the 1880's and Cracknell had charge of the telegraphic matters.

THE STORY OF NEW SANDGATE ROAD

The original road to Sandgate from Albion, Brisbane, was that which was called the Sandgate Road and is now known as Bonney Avenue. It joined the road from Breakfast Creek opposite “Whytecliffe" in the suburb then known as Albion Park and continued through Jackson Street, Eagle Junction over the area between there and the eastern side of Kalinga Park to link up with the street known nowadays as Bage Street, Nundah.

This last named street passes Corpus Christi Church and continues down towards the triangular reserve in which the monument stands in memory of the pioneers of the Nundah district, then connects with present day New Sandgate Road and follows on the route of the original Sandgate Road.

In the early 1870's the necessity to re‑route this original road (which was the main link with Sandgate and the farming district of Nudgee) was owing firstly to the very steep ascent and descent of that portion of the road at the end of Bage Street and secondly to the unsatisfactory lowness and tendency to frequent flooding and impassability of that stretch of road, between there and Eagle Junction. The road was, of course, over the lower end of Kedron Brook which was crossed by fording the wagons loaded with farm produce and other traffic made the journey in a similar manner.

When the water in the Brook was higher than usual, the wagons were unloaded, forded across and the produce was rowed over in punts and re‑loaded and the journey resumed to Brisbane. The inconvenience, loss of time and the danger in the wet season all tended to furnish a good case for a higher and better road to be built.

A government road from the corner of the thoroughfare, now known as Bonney Avenue, had been formed as far as Gregory Street from the time of the original survey in 5 July 1862 and ran through the Rosaville Estate which the present day Clayfield streets viz. Montpelier, Wellington and Crombie Streets were later laid out from this area of land.

It will be noted that at Gregory Street the New Sandgate Road takes a sharp north easterly direction. Land for the purpose of providing a route for the continuation of the abovementioned government road, which was to become the New Sandgate Road was purchased from the following: William Widdop, Theodor Franz, J. G. Wagner, R. Curtis and Kate Falkner. The several title deeds were duly signed by them agreeing to, dispose and sub‑divide their respective areas on 10 October 1877.

The new road (New Sandgate Road) was begun from the point of Gregory Street and passed unimpeded through Clayfield in a north easterly direction and on past where the Clayfield Railway Station now stands. At this time, the

Sandgate Railway had not even been surveyed nor was it built for a decade later.

No other means of communication to Sandgate, Nudgee and the intervening and surrounding districts existed except by road, or by the lengthy river and sea journey. However, this early freedom from that anathema of traffic, whether it be ancient or modern, the opening and closing of railway gates at the Clayfield Railway crossing began on the opening day of the line from Eagle Junction to Racecourse Station (later called Ascot Station) on 3 September 1890 and continued until the recently completed overpass was used for the first time on 20 July 1958. Verily, as every hour has its end, so the railway gates at the level crossing were removed but it was almost 68 years before it came to pass.

On the northern side of the Clayfield Station the New Sandgate Road makes a sharp angular turn near Junction Road. At the time of construction a large paddock had been previously purchased by an owner difficult to locate and in those early jog along days the road was built around the corner of the paddock and has so remained to the present day. The road should have been built in a straight direction from Clayfield towards Toombul at that particular spot. Perhaps, it is too much of an exaction on human nature to expect that the early road planners would have anticipated that in future days this road planned as a road to Sandgate would become a main northern highway particularly since the construction and opening of the Hornibrook Highway in 1935. Fortunately the construction of the Gateway Arterial further east has removed what was becoming increasing congestion and urban pressure on this road which was really designed for an earlier time and era.

The Toombul Divisional Board was the existing local authority of the area in which the New Sandgate Road was built and on the completion of the work the original Sandgate Road was called the Old Sandgate Road, which was later changed to Bonney Avenue after Mrs. Bonney who at that time was actively interested in aviation.

Road building at the time of construction of the New Sandgate Road and others differed entirely in methods, appearance, surface and implements. Queen Street itself, running through the City of Brisbane, was not asphalted in the year 1883. The method of construction particularly of excavation and grading cuttings was, before bulldozers and other modem mechanical methods, done by a one or two horse plough. The material was removed by a horse drawn tip dray.

 

O'KEEFE STREET, BURANDA.

 

Arthur John M. O'Keefe was born in Ireland in 1837 and came to Queensland in 1864. He was a descendant of the Kings of Spain. In the 1880's he was a member of the Woolloongabba Divisional Board. The abovenamed street is situated in the suburb of Buranda. This suburb takes its name from the railway station at Buranda, which was previously known as Logan Road Station.

O'Keefe was a building contractor, landowner of several thousand acres in the mining district of Gympie. He constructed many buildings in Brisbane among which are Her Majesty's Opera House in Queen Street, St. Andrew's Church of England Vulture Street, South Brisbane, St. Patrick's Church, Fortitude Valley, Holy Cross Church, Wooloowin, Brisbane.

His early residence was in John Street near the top of Wharf Street, Spring Hill and in the early 1880's he built a block containing three residences, one of which No. 238 Petrie Terrace (near the corner of Wellington Street and about one hundred yards from the Normanby Hotel) was his home. The building is still being used for residential purposes, but of course, is showing the mark of its many years. Two narrow brick chimneys are among the features as well as the brick garden footpath wall, the buttresses of which are ornamented at the top by having three ridges so arranged that the round ends form the three leaves of the shamrock and the harp of Erin is delineated below. O'Keefe apparently never forgot the land of his birth as is evidenced by the conspicuous harp which is separately shown from the other musical instruments on the facade of Her Majesty's Opera House.

GUTHRIE STREET, PADDINGTON.

John Guthrie was a very early resident of Brisbane. He was a solicitor by profession, and a member of the Queensland Turf Club Committee in 1880. After his election to the Ithaca Divisional Board in 1881 he continued to serve as a member for several years. He passed away at his home at Lutwyche, Brisbane in 1888.

 

DICKSON STREET, WOOLOOWIN.

James Robert Dickson was a Councillor in 1890 of the Hamilton Divisional Board, which was originally part of the Toombul Divisional Board.

LANCASTER ROAD, ASCOT.

John Lancaster was Chairman of the Toombul Divisional Board in 1896. He owned forty acres of land which is identifiable as the area bounded by Lancaster Road from the main entrance gate of Ascot Racecourse to Nudgee Road (Doomben Railway Station) to Beatrice Street to Racecourse Road.

ARNOLD STREET, MANLY.

David Dalgliesh Arnold was a grazier and lived there in the year 1886.

MUNRO STREET, AUCHENFLOWER.

S. E. Munro was the owner of 60 acres which was situated between Milton Road and Birdwood Terrace.

THORROLDTOWN‑AN EARLY BRISBANE SUBURB

Thorroldtown, an early Brisbane suburb was named after Robert L. Thorrold who was connected with the Supreme Court since before Separation.

His first official appointment was early in 1859 when he was made tipstaff to the late Judge Lutwyche who at that time was the second resident Judge of the Moreton Bay Settlement.

In the year 1863, when the Supreme Court Library was established, Robert Thorrold became Librarian and from 1872 was associate to Judge Lutwyche until the death of that notable personality. Thorrold then was engaged on a full time basis as Supreme Court Librarian.

The area of land owned by Robert L. Thorrold comprised 48 acres, the boundaries of which in present day identification would be the northern end of Bonney Avenue, the streets named Stafford and Inwood (which are immediately north of Wooloowin Railway Station) Kedron Park Road to Rose Street, Eagle Junction.

The railway line to Sandgate via Eagle Junction runs almost exactly through the centre of Robert Thorrold's early estate.

Robert Thorrold returned to England, the land of his birth, early in the year 1892, to spend his retirement.

The only historical link remaining nowadays to perpetuate the memory of this early day suburb is Thorrold Street which runs through the middle from east to west of the land once owned by him.

Once the railway line to Sandgate when completed in 1882, the railway station named Thorroldtown was situated about 500 yards on the northern side of the present Wooloowin Railway Station while the station called Lutwyche stood near the corner of Chalk St. The position of Eagle Junction Station, then called Eagle Farm Junction, was on a triangular site instead of the present lay‑out.

The proximity of these three railway stations viz., Lutwyche, Thorroldtown and Eagle Junction was such that they were built in a total distance of only 1300 yards. In the year 1888 the respective railway passengers using these stations as expressed on a percentage basis, revealed that Lutwyche booked 64 per cent, Thorroldtown 2 per cent and Eagle Junction 34 per cent. It was inevitable from the economic standpoint that the Thorroldtown Railway Station would have to be closed and by 1890 this was done, the Lutwyche station removed 300 yards northwards from Chalk Street to its present position and renamed Wooloowin.

The Windsor Town Council, the then existing local authority in which area the railway station of Lutwyche was situated, suggested that the name was a misnomer as it was over half a mile from the suburb of Lutwyche. Proposals were offered for the renaming of the newly built station to be called Maida Hill after the Maida Hill Estate on the eastern side of the present station.

An alternative proposal was to call the new (Wooloowin) station ALFRED in honour of Judge Alfred James Peter Lutwyche.

However, the name Wooloowin was given to the new station and as in so many instances of aboriginal native names controversy existed due to the contention that the name should be written as Kuluwin for a species of pigeon. As happened in many similarly small and early day suburbs of Brisbane, the elimination of the Thorroldtown Station, the cessation of the Thorroldtown horse drawn omnibus service which ran from Tom Withecombe's Butcher Shop at Thorrold Street to North Quay via the alternate routes of Chalk Street and McLennan Street, and the absence of any visual reminders, all tended to cause the name of Thorroldtown to drift into the limbo of forgotten things. The name of the area is now absorbed into that of Wooloowin otherwise Kuluwin.

EARLY BRISBANE ESTATES

The colonists who settled in Brisbane in the early days comprised people of every type of human nature. Some were professional men, artisans, others ambitious and enterprising in business, those who desired change of scene from the crowded areas of the older countries and many who sought to improve their conditions with a fresh start in a new land. Fashions may change, but human nature, in its generalities, remains the same. In the many who came, a goodly proportion merely found greater freedom, a kinder climate and were content to dwell here in their modestly improved conditions. However, the ever present proportion of those who possessed ambition was just as evident in the early colonists as subsists nowadays. The ambitious colonist who prospered, usually invested his capital in business or in the acquirement of real estate.

The suburban land area of Brisbane of the early days comprised blocks of land in areas from five acres to larger areas of one hundred acres or even larger in size. There the colonists built their substantial suburban homes, lived on the area, farmed some of the land (in the ten acres and a cow style) and possessed their souls in serenity and high hope.

They awaited the opportune time to dispose of the unused portion as development proceeded. Some were fortunate in this regard, many more found that as the metropolitan area grew and valuations increased, they were bedevilled by the subsequent additional rates and found it judicious to dispose of the majority of their original estate. It was the inevitable and widespread circumstance of the early day suburban lands of Brisbane. The historical links of the original owners thread throughout the suburbs by the inclusion of a road or street name of the original owner of the land.

THOMPSON ESTATE

Thompson Estate was an area of 200 acres in four adjoining blocks owned by Joseph Thompson.

He was a partner with Henry Buckley and agent for the Australian Steam Navigation Company, a New South Wales Company which later amalgamated with the Queensland Shipping Company and became the Australian United Steam Navigation Company (A.U.S.N.) of Brisbane. 

The estate comprised the land bounded by O'Keefe Street, Ipswich Road, Victoria. Terrace and to about two ‑thirds of the distance between Ipswich and Logan Roads for the eastern boundary.

Joseph Thompson incidentally also owned fifty‑four acres of land immediately opposite the eastern side of Coorparoo Railway Station.

THE CHANGED NAMES OF BRISBANE STREETS

REEVE STREET

Reeve Street, Clayfield was called Toorak Street in the year 1895.

HAMPSTEAD ROAD

Hampstead Road was originally known as Highgate Hill Road until the mid 1880's.

CRESCENT ROAD

Crescent Road from Eagle Farm Road Hamilton to Ludlow Street was once called Weekes Street after W. R. H. Weekes, who owned four blocks of land facing Eagle Farm Road on the left hand side of Crescent Road from the river. The area of land owned by Weekes was 32 acres. Crescent Road from Ludlow Street to Mayfield Street was called Wotton Street.

PROSPECT TERRACE

Prospect Terrace, Kelvin Grove was originally named Goat Terrace until the name was changed in 1886.

CORNWALL STREET

Cornwall Street, Dutton Park was once known as Yeerongpilly Road.

SHAFSTON AVENUE

Shaftson Avenue was originally called Bulimba Road then later became Shafston Road.

The present name is Shafston Avenue.

The name Shafston was given by Dr. Challinor, who in early days lived in Shafston House, in honour of his wife's birthplace in the West Indies.

 

MONTAGUE ROAD

Montague Road was once called Montague Street from Stanley Street to Merivale Street and then termed Hill End Road to where it reaches the river. The whole thoroughfare is now known as Montague Road.

CORONATION DRIVE

Coronation Drive had the original name of Moggill Road, then Riverview Road, later to become River Road and latterly Coronation Drive.

STANLEY STREET

Stanley Street, South Brisbane was originally known as Stanley Quay and as Stanley Street East from the junction of Dock Street near the old South Brisbane Town Hall.

JUNCTION ROAD

Junction Road, Clayfield was originally known as Eagle Road.

HAIG STREET

Haig Street, Clayfield originally in the estate of J. G. Wagner was known as Bismarck Street.

VULTURE STREET

Vulture Street was the South Boundary Road of the original mile square plan of Brisbane Town.

It derived its name as did Leopard Street, Kangaroo Point, from the visit of two British Warships, H.M.S. Vulture and H.M.S. Leopard in the early 1850s

THE EARLY BUILDINGS OF BRISBANE‑TOWN

        Brisbane Town was officially gazetted as a convict settlement on 15th August 1826 and from that date the construction of the necessary official residences and public buildings began.

Stone for the buildings was quarried by the convicts at Kangaroo Point opposite the Botanical Gardens, conveyed by punt to the wharf situated on the river front opposite the Commissariat Store (Colonial or State Store) and then carted to the building site. The wharf was later known as King's Jetty as at that time George IV was reigning.

Viewed in chronological order, the construction of a representative number of these various residences, offices and public buildings, as well as the necessary gardens for the growing of food reveals the pattern of development in those bygone days.

Commandant’s Quarters were built in what is now George Street in 1826. The land area for the quarters was almost opposite the Commissariat Store in William Street and extended about two hundred yards towards the present site of Parliament House, thence by the distance to George Street and extended up that street to approximately where the Government Printing Office stood.

The quarters were situated in that portion of the area and the kitchen of the Commandant's original building was still standing in 1870 at the rear of Mrs. McCabe's Fairfield Hotel when this stood in George Street.

The Commandant's Garden of four and a half acres was opposite his residence and skirted the river bank from the Commissariat Store.

The Timber Lumber Yard was established in 1827 at the western corner of Queen Street and North Quay.

It continued to be used as such and housed the carpenter's workshop.

Later it became the St. John's Church of England School. The area of this land totalled two roods and two perches and was later occupied on a building lease. Four shops and a hotel named the “Longreach." containing forty-eight rooms were built. The name of the hotel came from the long reach of the river opposite as the South Brisbane reach was then called. The hotel licence was eventually allowed to lapse in the 1920s. The rear interior of the hotel property site was converted into a large picture show known as “West's" and ran as such for many years. A later use of the interior was as a garage known as “Barnes" until the original building was demolished to make way for the imposing Prudential Assurance Company's then new building (now demolished).

Prisoners’ Barracks were built on the western side of Queen Street and extended from where the later day departmental store of Allan and Stark's stood to near the corner of Albert Street. The barracks were erected in two sections‑the original one being at the southern end and the later one at the northern (or Albert. Street) end. The respective dates of erection were in the years of 1828 and 1829.

After the departure of the convicts in 1839, rooms were let to the first free settlers on permit at £30 per annum (paid in advance) and were used by them as shops and dwellings.

Later, use was made of the premises as a Police Court.

The buildings, in sections housed various historic and important official institutions‑the first Parliament House from 1860 to 1868 and the Supreme Court from 1857 to 1879.

A number of church services were held in the chapel in the room upstairs by the various religious denominations and the meeting dates were taken in turn.

The buildings were demolished in 1880 and sold in 1881. The land sale was made by auction and reached £28,000 in 28 minutes and the area sold totalled 115 perches.

Three lots included in this area amounting to 30 perches were purchased by Richard Edwards and James Chapman (a firm of drapers) for £7488 equaling £156 per foot frontage.

The premises are later occupied by Weedmans Ltd.

Convict Hospital was built in 1827 on North Quay.

The site was later used (after the departure of the convicts in 1839) as the town hospital until the establishment of the Brisbane General Hospital in 1865.

The building became the Police Barracks until 1879 when the Supreme Court was completed. The current Supreme Court replaces the sandstone one burnt down.

Prisoners’ Cells were formerly on the site of the old Town Hall in Queen Street later the site of Woolworths Ltd. near George Street. The cells were constructed in 1828 and removed when the foundations of the first Town Hall were laid in 1864. Solitary cells were situated in George Street between the corner of George Street and Burnett Lane.

Superintendent of Convicts lived at the corner of Queen Street and George Street while his garden of an area of one acre extended from the comer of Adelaide Street along George Street and adjoined the solitary cells. A portion of the quarters of the Superintendent of Convicts became the first General Post Office and continued to be so used until the present G.P.O. was built as a first section nearest to Creek. Street in 1872.

 

The Superintendent of Convicts’ Quarters were built in 1829‑1830 and which later became the site of Edwards and Lamb Ltd.

Garden Cottages were built in 1829. The situation of these was in the Government Garden at the north-western corner of this area. The Garden consisted of a semi‑circular area running from the lower end of the present Botanical Gardens opposite the southern and eastern banks of the Brisbane River at this point opposite the old site of the South Brisbane Railway Coal Wharf. The Garden Cottages were demolished in the 1850's.

Parsonage (Chaplain’s Quarters) built in 1828. The site was later used as the Colonial Secretary's Office at the corner of William and Elizabeth Streets, the block of land extended to the corner of George Street. On the opposite comer stood the garden of the Chaplain and consisted of an area of 111 acres.

The Taxation Building later occupied the site.

Commissariat Store was built in 1829. It served also as the first bonded store for the Customs Department until the Customs House was built in 1846 at Petries Bight. The original Commissariat Store consisted of one storey until a second one was later added.

Military Hospital on North Quay about one hundred yards from the corner of Queen Street was built in 1832. It subsequently became the Survey Office and, in the course of time, when it was demolished the old Lands Office in George Street immediately opposite Adelaide Street was built in 1872.

Female Factory built in 1830 was on the site of the northern part of the present General Post Office. It was used to house women convicts until their removal to Eagle Farm. Subsequently, it was a Police Office and a portion of the official quarters was used as a residence for the Clerk of Works (Andrew Petrie) after his arrival in 1837 until his official residence was built.

Windmill and Observatory, Wickham Terrace. Built in 1829, the original treadmill and windsails were removed at an early stage of its existence.

Military Barracks, Guard Houses and Official Quarters. Built in 1839 were situated in the block of land on which the Treasury Buildings stood (latterly Treasury Casino). The Barracks become the first Treasury Building and in the same area use was also made of these as Immigration Barracks until the new Immigration Depot was built at the northern end of Kangaroo Point.

Surgeon’s Quarters and Garden (1831). The Surgeon's quarters were situated on North Quay about 700 feet from the comer of Queen Street and North Quay which is about the middle of the Supreme Court grounds. The garden of one acre extended from there to the comer of Ann Street and almost to the corner of George Street. The Surgeon's quarters were subsequently occupied by the Inspector of Police when the adjoining hospital buildings became the Police Barracks.

Clerk of Works Quarters built in 1838 for Andrew Petrie who came from Sydney in 1837 as the first Clerk of Works. He lived there till his death on 20th February 1872. The position of his residence was at the comer of Queen and Wharf Streets, on the site occupied later as Empire House.

In the years since the buildings were built, time and change have held their sway in the purpose, in the methods and materials of construction, in the design and appearance and the progress of the tiny outpost of civilisation then called Brisbane Town. The Observatory and what remains of the original treadmill and windmill still looks down on the ever-growing city and the Commissariat Store (now known as the State Stores) is the lone instance of all the buildings constructed at the time of the founding of Brisbane to continue in its original purpose as a heritage listed store.

STRONG AVENUE, GRACEVILLE

Strong Avenue, Graceville, was named after the late John Strong who owned about 95 acres of land bounded by Oxley Road, Magee Street, Allardyce Street, to Oxley Creek.

He also owned 411 acres on the easterly side of Oxley Creek which is now sub‑divided into the area consisting of King Arthur Terrace, Vivian Street, Camelot Street, Lancelot Street, Gerlee Street, and Merlin Street in the suburb of Tennyson.

John Strong took up land about 1857 and for many years was engaged in agricultural pursuits. Mr. Thos. J. Strong, once Hon. Sec. of the Wide Bay and Burnett Historical Society, was a grandson of John Strong.

THE BRISBANE CHILDRENS HOSPITAL

        One of the brighter aspects of life is to observe, particularly during a general retrospect, that directivity which leads altruistic reformers to initiate noble‑minded deeds to alleviate suffering.

The need for righting a wrong, or correcting a circumstance in which humane action and consideration are necessary, is readily apparent to the many. However, it is that benign trait of human nature which brings forth the few, who in the ultimate, feel impelled to initiate and carry out the task.

In Brisbane during the early 1870's, fifty percent of the population died before reaching the age of five years.

The General Hospital did not admit children under that age as the prevailing idea in those days was that they would be better nursed in their illness by parents in their own homes.

However, the parents' inexperience of the correct medical treatment, the financial hardship in the cost of having constant attendance on the children and the high rate of child mortality created a pressing need for a sweeping change in the care of sick children of tender years.

As sympathy is better assimilated when accompanied by relief, these twin factors undoubtedly actuated the idea in 1876 to a few eminent and practical ladies, the leader of whom was Mrs. D. C. McConnell of Cressbrook, a pastoral property in South East Queensland. She also lived for a number of years at “Witton Manor" in the suburb of Indooroopilly, Brisbane. The Government of those days was not over enthusiastic nor over generous on the question of establishing a children's hospital and consequently the burden of providing the necessary finance became the responsibility of the lady founder.

The establishment of a children's hospital was cordially received by the residents of the Colony of Queensland as admissions thereto were open to children from any part of the Colony. A sale of work was held in the Exhibition Building at Bowen Park Brisbane as the initial means of raising funds to meet expenses and so successful was the effort that the sum of £1193 resulted. After some preliminary meetings and completion of the details of organisation, it was decided to rent a two storeyed brick building formerly occupied by the Christian Brothers College and which stood on the present day site of St. Paul's Presbyterian Church in St. Paul's Terrace.

The hospital consisted of three wards of five beds each. One of the wards was on the lower floor while upstairs a balcony ran round the three sides of the building and served as a convalescent place for the children to play. The situation of the building commanded wide views and in its position caught the cool breezes during the summer months. Several additional buildings for the different uses as outpatients, kitchen and for laundry also stood in the large block of land where the hospital was, thus isolated from the other houses in the: neighbourhood.

On 18 February 1878 the sailing, ship Gauntlet arrived at Brisbane with the ward appliances aboard but the two nurses who were appointed did not come. Miss Hillicar who was the first Matron was professionally trained in Westminster Hospital London and the Royal Southern Hospital Liverpool. The staff consisted of two trained nurses and a probationary nurse. With that true feminine aptitude of discerning a bargain, the ladies committee embraced the opportunity of securing the services of the matrons of two emigrant ships at Brisbane. It had cost the committee the sum of £50 for the fare of Miss Hillicar from London but by engaging the matrons on the spot at this port, the committee had not only saved the hospital £100 but had also relieved the Government of the requirement which then existed of having to pay that amount for the matrons return passage to England. That aspect was not allowed to be forgotten when the committee sought and eventually obtained, a subsidy of £100 from the Government.

The medical staff consisted of Dr. Purcell, Dr. Rendle, and Dr. Clarkson each of whom took a turn of a week. A consulting staff was also attached to the hospital. An average of thirteen beds occupied showed that the facilities were readily availed of and although the figure may appear small, it will no doubt be remembered that the population of Brisbane and. the Colony of Queensland was sparse in those early days.

On 11 March 1878, the first patient was admitted and thus began the noble work of tending children in illness in this hospital. After the hospital was established, Mrs. D. C. McConnell was elected President, Lady O'Connell, Vice President, and Mr. Thomas A. Archer of the Bank of New South Wales, Treasurer.

In the year 1879, there were 105 patients admitted of whom 81 were discharged as cured. Admission to the hospital was for children from two to twelve years of age, but there was a discretionary admission above and below those ages. No child was admitted unless it had the certificate of a medical man that it was free from contagious or infectious diseases. A small payment was desired for the child's stay in the hospital but the contributions were voluntary. The following scale of contributions were recommended. Every annual subscriber of £l was entitled to vote at all general meetings and deemed to be a member of the institution for the current year and entitled to recommend to the committee, patients for admission as follows:

If a contributor of £1    1 indoor patient or 5 outdoor patients

If a contributor of £2    1 indoor patient or 6 outdoor patients

If a contributor of £5            3 indoor patients or 8 outdoor patients

If a contributor of £10  5 indoor patients or 16 outdoor patients

Contributors of less than £l per annum were entitled to one outdoor ticket for each 5/‑ subscribed. 

The premises occupied as a Children's Hospital in Leichhardt Street (St. Paul's Terrace) were rented on a short tenancy. A suitable cottage in Warren Street, Fortitude Valley, was purchased by the Committee early in May 1879 and became the Children's Hospital at the end of June 1879. A more compelling reason for the move was due to the necessity to reduce expenses owing to the fact that the income of the Hospital would not permit it being carried on in the original large building suitable for fifteen beds. The Warren St. cottage was only large enough to accommodate eight beds. The situation of this cottage (in present day identification) would be opposite the Warren St. frontage of the building of the Sisters of Perpetual Adoration.

In the year 1882, Sir Arthur Kennedy became Patron and his daughter, Miss Kennedy, the Patroness of the Children's Hospital. The cottage was small and unsuitable for the requirements of the patients. Moreover it had been disclosed by the committee that unless greater financial support was received, the Hospital would not be able to continue.

In 1883 Mr. A. Archer represented the case of the Children’s Hospital in Parliament and succeeded in bringing the institution under the Hospitals Act which allowed £l for every £l subscribed.. A sum of £1000 was held by the Committee and this, together with an equal amount granted by the Government as well as a block of land (approximately five acres) adjoining the General Hospital provided for the building of a new Children's Hospital. It was completed and the patients moved to it on 11 October 1883. A fever ward was found necessary and built in 1894 owing to the outbreak of typhoid in that year. Much practical sympathy to the Children's Hospital was given by the then Governor of the Colony, Sir Anthony Musgrave and Lady Musgrave, who opened it. The Lady Musgrave Sanitarium for convalescents was opened at Sandgate.

As the population grew, the need for additional space for hospital accommodation became evident and in August 1894 special meetings of the Committee and subscribers were held to consider the necessary funds for the new building. The idea of self‑denial was instituted and Mrs. Cowlishaw, a Vice President originated an appeal that was made to all children attending State schools throughout the Colony and resulted in the sum of £472 being contributed by these children. When viewed in proper perspective against the background of sparse population, and the undeteriorated value of money in the days before inflation raised its ugly head, the effort was commendable. His Excellency Sir Henry Wylie Norman laid the foundation stone of the present hospital on 20 December 1894 and the Lady Norman wing (comprising the McConnell, Raff, Cowlishaw and Gray wards) was opened free of debt on 29 October 1895. The Lady O'Connell wing was erected in 1899.

The Children's Hospital's first medical officer was Dr. Alfred Jeffries Turner, M.D., a child specialist, who was appointed in 1889. It is worthy of note that Dr. Turner, in his quest into the cause of the then prevalent lead poisoning among children, found after much research that it was caused largely by a child's habit of running its finger along under a verandah railing to collect the drops of rain‑water and then placing the wet finger in its mouth. From this discovery, the initial prohibition of painting with lead on surfaces under twelve feet from the ground (or floor area) was made and latterly a total prohibition of lead as a paint material has been proclaimed.

The Children's Hospital in providing medical care for young children, had an unceasing struggle for funds. This was alleviated by the passing of the Hospitals Act of 1923 whereby the Government made up the deficiency between the amount of receipts and expenditure.

THE EARLY BRISBANE MARKETS

The major problem of agriculture has ever been, not in the growing of the products of the land, but in the selling of these at a satisfactory price. Our early land settlers endured this experience, which still prevails except in the disposal of a few price‑stabilized crops. Prior to the establishment of a market, these early day farmers brought their agricultural products to Brisbane Town in horse drawn drays and wagons and in sturdy rowing boats from farms situated on the Brisbane River as far down as Doughboy (Hemmant) and upstream as far as Oxley. The products were then hawked around the town or from shop to shop in an endeavour to effect disposal. This system (or the lack of a proper system) was unsatisfactory, as it involved a lot of additional travelling, and this could only be accomplished by the slow means of horse drawn vehicles, which had already come lengthy distances from outside the town. It was also unrewarding to farmers to be subjected to the iniquitous practice of the few shop‑keepers who regulated the purchase price so low that the thought often welled up in the minds of the producers that it could be almost as profitable to feed the farm animals with some of the produce and utilize the remainder as fertilizer for the soil.

The desire of the residents of Brisbane for the prosperity of the farmers and small agriculturists swelled the agitation for the establishment of a market in the year       1866. By that time, the population of the town had reached approximately 8000 and it was considered sufficiently large enough to support the market and from which it was hoped to procure the various agricultural products plentifully and cheaply instead of under the previous system of scarceness and dearness. In the early planning of Brisbane, the requirement for a market reserve had been kept in mind by the authorities of New South Wales under which, of course, the area now known as Queensland was then governed. James Warner, one of the original surveyors sent by Governor Gipps from New South Wales to the Moreton Bay Settlement as the area in which Brisbane was then termed, accordingly had completed his survey “showing the position in the Town of Brisbane proposed as a site of a market” and it was duly signed by him on the 10th December 1849. He recommended that allotments Nos. 5 and 6 of Section 34 be converted to form a street on the southern end of the reserve. The area of the reserve was 1 acre 20 perches and in present day identification is bounded by Charlotte Street, the lower

end       of Eagle Street, and by Market Street-the street which was formed by the conversion of the two allotments Nos. 5 and 6. A condensed description of the area

would be the block of land opposite the rear portion of St. Stephen's Cathedral to the Queen's Hotel thence opposite the sheds of the present A.U.S.N. Coy's Mary Street wharf as far as the Grand Hotel at the corner of Mary Street, and Market Street. The area actually “used for the market was, of course, only that occupied by

a long market shed, built parallel on an alignment about 25 feet from the frontage of lower Eagle Street.

The contract to build the market was given to Dath and Gillies and plans were prepared by R. G. Suter. It consisted of a long shed built of wood on a stone foundation and the roof was of corrugated galvanized iron. The contract price was £879 and the time for construction was 15 weeks. Objections were raised by the residents against the class of materials used in the construction, particularly as the Brisbane Municipal Corporation (Council) regarded the area as a first class section of the town. The building consisted of two lines of stalls totalling 30 with a roadway between, while the wholesale shed was at the back of the market to which the produce had to be carried. Fruit and vegetables were the main commodities marketed at these premises, after construction had been completed about October 1867.

However, previously to the abovementioned market, a row of shops on this site had been erected during the year 1865 when A. J. Hockings was Mayor of Brisbane. Subsequently, the shops had been removed by order of the Town Council. In the year 1867 when A. J. Hockings again became Mayor, a plan was afoot by the Council, wherein it was proposed to erect 30 shops which would, no doubt, be taken by fruit and vegetable dealers in the town. The deputation of those interested in the matter was held in the Queen's Hotel nearby and the Mayor's attention was drawn to the fact that no definite provision of space had been made for the growers.

In April, 1868, the lease for one year was auctioned and knocked down to H. Skinner for the collection of tolls and dues arising from the Brisbane Market for the sum of £375. However, owing to his inability to furnish the necessary security for finance, it was again auctioned and the successful bidder E. B. Cullen Accountant of the Queensland Treasury obtained the lease for £270 per annum.

Under the management of the Treasury which sought to obtain the maximum revenue from the markets, the trade therein did not flourish and this seeking for revenue had the effect of creating the desire among the purchasers to pay as little as possible for produce. Opinions were then expressed that unless it could be successfully operated, the market house, wharf and grounds should be let for other purposes.

Another lessee, George Brooks secured the lease by auction for one year from October 1868 for £160. Improvements, such as the concreting of the whole of the ground interior, the laying on gas for illumination, the fitting up of the 30 stalls as shops and the removal of Market Wharf steps to the Charlotte and Creek Streets end, were efforts to improve the conditions. One continuing complaint was that as the market had been built and consisting, as it did, of two lines of stalls with a roadway running between these, the situation arose that a producer on going inside must either take a stall, at some expense, or trespass upon Lower Eagle Street in front of the market. The general facilities and accommodation were of a poor standard but the lessee had sufficient confidence in the future of the market that he secured a five years' extension of the lease at the same figure of £160 per annum. Authority was now granted for the storage of produce overnight in the market. The markets strived to continue, but in the late 1870's opinion grew that the situation was not sufficiently central to bring buyers and sellers together and that the original establishing of the project had been the result of much agitation by a number of well‑meaning friends of the farmers. The market erection scheme had thus been forced on the Brisbane Municipal Corporation (Council). Activities in the market gradually waned, so that by the year 1881 no market existed for the sale of fruit and vegetables.

The incidence of railway construction particularly that which then terminated

at Roma Street had an influencing part in determining the site of a new market for

Brisbane. A loan of £6000 for the erection of a new wholesale market was

offered to Brisbane Municipal Corporation on a site in Upper Roma Street (near

the original Roma Street Railway Station) and adjoining the (old) Albert Grammar

School Reserve. Briefly, it consisted of a large covered shed 300 ft. long and

100 ft. wide with a double set of railway lines running between the two landing

platforms. A cooling room 100 ft. by 25 ft. for the storage of meat and the

necessary offices were built on the adjoining Roma Street frontage. As a result of

the rapid growth of Brisbane's population from 30,000 in 1880 to 50,000 in 1885,

a larger market became necessary. A new market consisting of seven sections

was established in Roma Street, on the site of the original sale and pound yards.

The land was a free grant from the Government to the Council and the building,

cost £13,000. An extension of the market was made a few years later to front Turbot Street. Auction sales were held on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. Some dissatisfaction regarding the amounts of rents demanded resulted in thirty of the fruit and vegetable agents of the market forming them­selves into a company called “The Brisbane Fruit and Produce Exchange Ltd" in 1906.

      Several small cottages were purchased in Turbot St. and later more property in Ann Street on which was erected a more commodious market.

      The location of produce markets in Brisbane was likewise provided for in Stanley Quay (now Stanley Street) western side and the corner of Glenelg Street. A market reserve of 1 acre and 20 perches is shown as being so designated in September 1847. Meetings were held in the Mechanics' Institute (the later site of Tunley's Ltd. at 95 Stanley Street, South Brisbane) as early as 1882 to consider the question of establishment of the Stanley Street Market with a section for horse and cattle yards as well as space for the marketing of fruit and produce.

      Prior to this meeting the Woolloongabba Divisional Board, in 1880 had been granted by the Government an area of 10 acres from the corner of Stanley Street, and Merton Road, to Vulture Street at the western end of the Woolloongabba, (Railway) Reserve for a Board Room and a market. The Board Room was built and stood until about 1930 on the abovementioned spot (on the opposite comer block to the Hotel Morrison). Further meetings were held as long afterwards as 1888 and the weight of opinion was for the market to be built on the comer of Stanley and Glenelg Streets. It may be here stated that no railway had been built to the adjacent wharves at this time. The South Brisbane Municipal Market was subsequently built on the Stanley and Glenelg Streets site. It consisted of a long shed with unloading bays on each side of a raised concrete floor of the required height to unload the produce from the farmers' wagons when backed into position. These markets continued for some years, but about 1910 the trade had dwindled to half a dozen farmers' wagons attending on Saturday mornings and the trade diminished to that of the residents adjacent and the markets in a few years time' were unused. A service station was then built on the actual shed site.

      In the block facing Wickham Street between Ballow & Constance Streets, a long brick building was erected in the late 1920's for use as the Valley Markets but the venture was unsuccessful and was later occupied as a Motor Car Salesroom.

THE SOUTH BRISBANE GRAVING DOCK

A prime requisite of a thriving seaport, which, as a matter of progressive business desires to afford full facilities for ships requiring repairs, general maintenance and periodical overhaul, is the establishment of a graving (or dry) dock.

Brisbane was but a small town of some 13000 in the early 1870's when the Government of the young Colony of Queensland considered that the means of fully repairing ships were necessary. The decision was courageous, enterprising and revealed the general confidence which was also so markedly evident in Queensland's early days.

In the year 1875, the annual volume of shipping arriving at the port of Brisbane was 289 vessels with a total tonnage of 93783.

The neatly drawn survey plan of J. C. Burnett dated 30 November 1853 shows at that part of the area where the South Brisbane Dry Dock is now situated, the endorsement “to be reserved", but no purpose of the reserve is shown. It became Section 40 and on the river frontage of the present Dock, a reserve was later designated as the Public Baths Reserve and consisted of 3 roods.

Sidon Street ran from Vulture Street passing the corner (the Ship Inn Hotel)

across Stanley Quay (later Stanley Street) almost down to the river frontage. The Lower River Terrace ran behind the river frontaged Baths Reserve and linked up with Sidon Street thus forming a continuous thoroughfare to and from Kangaroo Point.

        A street also ran from Stanley Street at an angle of 45 degrees and joined that part of Lower River Terrace (near the river entrance to the Dry Dock). This street consequent on the building of the Dock, was re‑aligned and reconstructed as Dock Street at an angle of 90 degrees to Stanley and linked with Lower River Terrace.

Early day ship repairing in Brisbane was carried out on several small slipways respectively situated at Lytton, Queensport (near T. Borthwick & Sons Ltd. Abattoirs), Kangaroo Point, and at the river corner of Petrie's Bight.

The South Brisbane Dry Dock was designed by the Queensland Harbours and Rivers Engineer, William D. Nisbett, M. Inst. C.E. in 1875 and the contractors were the firm of J. & A. Overend. A time of three years was given for the completion of the work and 250 men were employed. However, owing to several unforeseen difficulties, such as the collapse of the first coffer dam at the entrance, the unsuitability of local granite stone, the Dock was not opened until 10 September 1881. The cost was £83,849 for the Dock, which was originally 320 ft. long but was extended in the year 1884 to a length of 430 ft. towards the Stanley Street end. This extension was governed to some extent by the amount of land required for the proposed railway line to the South Brisbane Wharves. The line, however, was not built until 1894. The width of the Dock at the top is 79 ft. at the level of the keel blocks 53 ft. while the respective depths are 32 ft. from the dock top to the floor and 19 ft. on the entrance sill.

The bottom was formed by an inverted arch of freestone and cement 3 ft. thick abutting against the foot of the side walls, so placed as to resist any possible pressure from water rising through the porous rock beneath the Dock. The floor rests upon this inverted arch and consists of concrete and granite crossed by large hardwood blocks laid at suitable distances. A series of altars (steps) faced with freestone masonry backed by concrete and puddled clay, forms the sides of the Dock. Stair cases (two on each side) headed down provide access. Two side drains run into a cross drain immediately behind the entrance sill. This drain runs into a well on the eastern side, where the water is pumped out by centrifugal pumps into the river.

Lockyer Creek freestone was quarried at the midway distance between Murphy's Creek and Helidon (Queensland) about 77 miles from Brisbane. It was used for coping on both sides of the Dock, the quay walls and for the upper stones of the altars and steps. The tests of the stone made before its use was decided, showed absorption (of water) 3.7 per cent and a specific gravity of 2.45 per cent and thus a weight of 153 lbs. a cubic foot. It was considered that the results showed that this was a very favourable stone.

Regarding this freestone, it is worthy of record, that the large blocks used in parts of the Dock were probably the largest every quarried in Queensland.

Measurements were 8 ft. 8 inches long, 4 ft. 3 inches wide and 2 ft. thick and of an

estimated weight of 6 tons each. The granite stone which was referred to in

paragraph 3 of this article was quarried at Enoggera near Brisbane, was intended

to be used, but it was found to be extremely hard. This hardness precluded the

economical working and shaping of it into granite blocks and the contractors

decided to import granite from Melbourne. A compensation for the extra first

cost of the freight by steamer from that distant port was effected by the large number of man‑hours saved in working the Melbourne granite. Perhaps a silent reminder of the hardness of the Enoggera granite could be found in the fact that at the south eastern end of the Dock near the caisson, one only granite block was built into the coping and appropriately enough, next to the cast iron grill bearing the name of the contractors J. & A. Overend.

      The disposal of the excavated rock material created an economic problem. One proposal was to transport this material by punt and dump it below the Hamilton Hotel area i.e., on the north bank of the river and the blind channel between there and Parker Island. Another proposal submitted by the Brisbane Municipal Council was to utilize it in bringing several of the streets adjoining Stanley Street up from a light flood level. South Brisbane was at that time, included in the original area of Brisbane's first municipal boundary. The total quantity thus obtained amounted to 63500 cubic yards and the extent of its use is shown hereunder:

Melbourne. Street-12000  cubic yards;  Hope Street -10000 cubic yards; Peel Street- 2000 cubic yards; Merivale Street     -15000 cubic yards; Glenelg Street-8000 cubic yards; Russell Street 500 cubic yards.

        In addition to the abovenamed streets, a large quantity was used to raise the low lying portion of Stanley Street near Ernest Street. This last‑named street was raised 6 ft. at the river end.

The barque Doon of 800 tons register was the first ship to enter the Dock for repairs. During January 1881, this barque was dismasted at sea. The work of re‑masting the Doon was carried out by the firm of J. W. Sutton and Co. precursor to the engineering establishment of Evans Anderson and Phelan Ltd. Kangaroo Pt. Brisbane.

Repairs to the Doon were extensive and amounted to the sum of £4000‑a not inconsiderable figure in early day pre‑inflation standards.

During the many years of the Dock's establishment full use has been made by the ships of Brisbane and those from overseas. However, as the length and tonnage increased as a general trend in world shipping progress, the use of the Dock has been restricted to the smaller type of vessel. At the time the Dock was planned, and for many succeeding years, it was sufficiently large and was situated in the centre of the shipping activity of the port of Brisbane of those times. However, as human knowledge and engineering skills have prophetic limitations, it would be unfair to the early planners to now condemn them for the inability to foresee the vastly changed conditions ‑that have come in the world of shipping. The gross tonnages of overseas and of some coastal ships have, since the Dock was originally opened, increased by three or four times as much as they once were. Lengths have shown proportionate increases while the very important factor of the vessel's depth and the consequent restriction it placed on a ship to navigate the Brisbane River all tended to contribute to the Dock being superseded by the construction of a larger one‑the Cairncross Graving Dock‑the work on which was commenced in 1942. This Dock was situated opposite the Hamilton Wharves area in deeper water.

The South Brisbane Dry Dock still carries on the repair and overhaul of ships of the tonnage it can accommodate. It was an even busier area from the mid 1880's when it had between the Dock and the building later known as the South Brisbane Municipal Library, the Stanley Street Railway Station. Seven passenger and mixed trains arrived daily from the South Coast line (then constructed as far as Loganlea) until the Melbourne Street line was opened on 21 December 1891. Many moons have waxed and waned, many tides have ebbed and flowed past the South Brisbane Dry Dock since its opening day but it, and much of the original machinery and equipment now stand as a heritage monument to the decision of the Government of the day to build a Dock in Brisbane at a cost of £83849 when the population of the town was only 13000.

SOME BRISBANE ESTATE NAMES

In the progressive growth of Brisbane and the consequent extension of the residential areas, land was usually sold by auction as the various blocks were subdivided from the original size of five, ten, twenty or even larger areas. The enterprising landholder and the equally enthusiastic auctioneer chose the name by which the estate would be known and advertised. However, in the great majority of such cases, after the land sale the name was soon forgotten. Some carried the name of the original landholder, some extolled the geographical advantages while others attached the name of their home country birthplace or a topical name attracting attention at that particular time.

RIVER BEND ESTATE

River Bend Estate consisted of that area of land between St. Lucia Road, Carmody Road and Munro Street.

FAIRFIELD PARK ESTATE

Fairfield Park Estate was the area bounded by Ashby Street, Lang Street, Brassey Street, (Bell) now Bledisloe Street, Sunbeam Street and Venner Road.

GRAND VIEW ESTATE

Grand View Estate, in the Albion Park area of Sykes Street, Tower Street, Massey Street, Bale and Anthony Streets.

PORT ARTHUR ESTATE

Port Arthur Estate was situated between Toorak Road, Hipwood Street, and Mikado Street.

THE PLIMSOLL MARK

A noble part of every fine life is to learn to undo what has been wrongly done. The respective lives of Samuel Plimsoll and James Hall fully exemplify this, and few men, other than these can base a claim on having saved more lives, particularly those who travel on the oceans of the world. They initiated and strove to bring about the many maritime, reforms which have now been adopted by the great majority of nations.

Samuel Plimsoll was born on 10 February 1824 at 3 Redcliff Parade opposite St. Mary's Redcliff Church, Bristol. His father Thomas Plimsoll, a Customs and Excise officer, was soon afterwards transferred to Armagh, Ireland and subsequently to Cumberland, England. The family consisted of twelve and young Samuel began his working life as a solicitor's office boy and later became a clerk in a Brewery. He became interested in the coal trade, but after many frustrations and lack of success, he endured the mournful existence of living in extreme poverty in London for some time. A fortunate turning point in Plimsoll's career came when he decided to leave London and enter the employ of Chambers and Newton who owned several collieries in the Sheffield area. In 1857, he married John Chambers' step‑daughter Eliza Anne Railton a young lady of fine character and sound financial means. Plimsoll, thenceforth, by his employment with that firm and by his marriage, came under the favourable notice of John Chambers both in business and social aspects. One result was that Samuel Plimsoll had now the financial background to again engage in his cherished ambition of becoming a coal merchant. He instituted the simple, though ingenious method of loading coal through traps, flaps and coal screens to prevent pulverisation. His earlier difficulties had now been surmounted and by enterprise, efficient management and organisation he was so successful as a London coal merchant, that his gross income was £8000 annually in the early 1870's.

Contrary to the popularly accepted belief, Samuel Plimsoll was not the originator of the movement which contributed eventually to the adoption of the Plimsoll mark. James Hall, who virtually may be regarded as the father of the Plimsoll line was a Newcastle (England) shipowner. In the year 1854 he joined his brother John to found the firm now known as Hall Bros. Shipping Co. Ltd. This firm still carries on its shipping business at Royal Parade, Newcastle, England, and incidentally was the first shipping Company to establish training for seamen in the ship Wellesley on the Tyne. As a practical shipowner and a leading member of the Newcastle Chamber of Commerce, James Hall a deeply religious man, was much concerned at the annual loss of ships proceeding to sea. Insurance premiums were sharply mounting, seamen's lives were being lost and the Newcastle Chamber of Commerce after closely reviewing the whole subject, suggested, in the year 1867 that the Government be approached to appoint a Government Inspector of Shipping at the main ports where certificates could be issued or refused in respect of a ship's seaworthiness and as a means of preventing overloading. James Hall revealed that although the Merchant Shipping and Navigation Bill of 1869 contained 500 clauses, no attempt had yet been made to provide for a maximum load line for ships. He decided to place the matter in the hands of Samuel Plimsoll who had been elected Member of Parliament for Derby England in 1868.

Plimsoll entered into the question with great zeal and assembled a mass of facts which, when summarised, showed that the worst evils came from the wilful employment of unseaworthy ships, excessive loading, undermanning of crews, bad stowage and over‑insurance by the unscrupulous type of shipowner. The majority of shipowners wanted reforms but there were great differences of opinion as to how these were to be adopted. Care had to be taken that if too stringent reforms were applied by the British Government to that nation's ships with the incidental expense, limitations and restrictive practices, the possibility existed, that in the field of competitive freight rates, British ships might be forced from the oceans of the world by the less expensive foreign ships which might still be free of restricting regulations.

In 1873, Samuel Plimsoll wrote “Our Seamen" a book in which he described the conditions of ships and the hardships seamen endured. Its publication roused the nation and eventually after much agitation and inquiry the Merchant Shipping Act was passed in 1876. Among many other reforms the marking of the Load Line on vessels became compulsory, with modifications and exceptions for those vessels engaged in specific trades. The method of marking is by centre-punching marks into the steel hull and painting white or yellow on a dark coloured hull or black on a light coloured one. The circle is 12 inches in diameter and is bisected by a line 18 inches long and at the respective ends the letters L R (Lloyds Register) appear. Six separate lines indicate, in accordance with water density, the limit of submergence in Tropical Fresh, Fresh, and, in the area of salt water, Tropical, Summer, Winter, and Winter North Atlantic. These markings differ slightly from the original ones of 1876 and resulted from deliberations of the Maritime Convention held in 1933.

The effect of the passing of the Merchant Shipping Act of 1894 ended the practice by which the shipowner or the master decided the load line as a matter of judgment by rule of thumb methods. The load line is now determined by a technical formula now uniform among the seafaring nations of the world.

In the, year 1879, Samuel Plimsoll unfortunately, through an accident, lost an eye. The long strain of his active agitation for reform, in which he learned that the way of the reformer is always hard, had somewhat impaired his health and the loss of his eye had added to his worries. His wife's health was also becoming a matter of concern. She had also suffered from the strain in which she had energetically, but unobtrusively helped and encouraged him in his long struggle.

In 1880 Plimsoll resigned his seat in Parliament and together with his wife and their step‑daughter Nellie sailed for Melbourne via Madeira. The objects of the trip were to visit an aunt of Mrs. Plimsoll in Melbourne and to seek a congenial climate for recuperation. They stayed with Mrs. Thos. Chambers (the aunt) who, with her husband and family had come to Australia in 1832. After an enjoyable holiday in Melbourne a short stay was made in Sydney where Plimsoll received a warm welcome from the seamen.

The historical link with Brisbane had its commencement, when Samuel Plimsoll accompanied by his wife and step‑daughter arrived in this city on 24 June 1882 to pay a visit to his sister Mrs. Mary Sophia Dickinson of Selby House, Wickham Terrace, Brisbane. During their stay they visited Toowoomba and then returned to the above address. Early in August 1882, Mrs. Plimsoll contracted pneumonia but despite the closest medical attention of Dr. Chas. F. Marks, she passed to her rest on 17 August 1882. The funeral which took place from the abovenamed address was attended by the then Governor, Premier and very many sympathisers. Mrs. Plimsoll was buried in Toowong Cemetery on 18 August 1882 in grave D 960, the position being about half way from the Cemetery office and the site of the conspicuous monument to Governor Blackall. The remains of Mrs. Plimsoll were exhumed by authority of an Exhumation Order of the Colonial (now Home) Secretary signed on 21 August 1882 and subsequently shipped from Brisbane in the vessel Manora which sailed for London via Batavia on 12 September 1882 under the agency of Gibbs Bright and Co. Mrs. Plimsoll's sad end brings forth a worthy reference to the historical coincidence that Dr. Chas. F. Marks was the father of Dr. E. 0. Marks of Wickham Terrace (near to Selby House) who was an active member of the Royal Historical Society of Queensland since 1927.

The grave of Mrs. Plimsoll was taken over by a family named Knights but is, through a fallen headstone, not readily distinguishable nowadays. In the compilation of the subject matter of this article, the writer has called to mind the moments of sublime reflection when visiting, the site of Mrs. Plimsoll's temporary burial and when transacting official duties abroad the Trident at Brisbane, a vessel of the line of Hall Bros. and Co. Ltd. originally founded by James Hall in 1854.

Samuel Plimsoll died on 3 June1898, and was buried at Folkstone, England. He was survived by his second wife, a son and two daughters. His headstone consists of a marble circle with a horizontal line‑the Plimsoll line. James Hall

(the originator of the reform which led to the load line) died in 1904. He was

deprived of much of the honour due to him, largely through the inevitable publicity

attached to the persistent agitation and the prolonged fight for reform. Honour

is due to both men, perhaps few men would have fought so constantly as Samuel

Plimsoll did. The Plimsoll line has been called the ‘seamen's life line but it could,

with equal justice, be regarded as the Hall(mark) of Safety.

        A bronze bust of Samuel Plimsoll was unveiled in Thames Embankment Gardens, London, on 21st August 1929. It was erected by members of the National Union of Seamen in grateful recognition of the services to the men of the sea of all nations. The name of Samuel Plimsoll would appear to have been perpetuated in a quiet way in the mid 1880's by Plimsoll Street at Mount Pleasant a small, but early named Brisbane suburb midway between Greenslopes and Holland Park.

THE STORY OF EARLY BRISBANE GAOLS

        In September 1824 the first convicts arrived in Moreton Bay Settlement. The convict barracks were built in Queen Street during 1828 and 1829. During 1830 the Female Factory was completed and occupied by the women convicts, until their removal to Eagle Farm Settlement. The year 1839 saw the departure of the majority of convicts. Alterations were made to the Female Factory and it was re‑constructed as a gaol. This gaol and the former prisoners' barracks in Queen Street also, were sufficient for the purpose. However, when the necessity arose of providing Legislative Chambers for the newly constituted Parliament of the Colony, the building was converted into Queensland's first Parliament House.

The Government decided to build a gaol on Petrie Terrace opposite Caxton Street. Andrew Petrie was the contractor and the gaol was opened on 5 November 1860. Samuel Sneyd was an early Governor of the gaol. His son, Joseph Sneyd rose to a high position in the South Brisbane gaol. Samuel Sneyd owned 31 acres on Stafford Road between Gibson Park and opposite to Victor Street as well as 3 acres at Bowen Hills where Sneyd Street perpetuates his name. He died at Enoggera on 4 July 1885.

The average number of admissions to the Petrie Terrace Gaol for the first six years were Males 475 and Females 75 but this average was reduced after 1865 when the hulk Proserpine was purchased by the Government and moored at Lytton where, about 70 prisoners were kept aboard. Women with infants were imprisoned at Petrie Terrace but a special diet or anything medically ordered was available. The records of Petrie Terrace Gaol likewise show the sternness of those times:

Oldest Male Adult imprisoned

96 years of age

Vagrancy.

Youngest Male imprisoned

10 years of age

Stealing money from a till.

Oldest Female Adult imprisoned

76 years of age

Stealing clothes.

Youngest Female imprisoned

11 years of age

Stealing fowls.

 

The women prisoners were removed to the Toowoomba Gaol in the year 1870 on the order of Sir Arthur Palmer who was Premier and Colonial (Home) Secretary.

Petrie Terrace Gaol had been a badly designed building and was situated in what became a populated area. Nearby residents could overlook the prison yards and exchange signals with the prisoners. The prison was not surrounded by a wall in the early period, but later, a massive stone one was built as the only protection beyond the building, had been a wooden fence.

In early 1867, the Government, in view of the overcrowding at Petrie Terrace sought a new site for a gaol and decided on St. Helena Island one of the prettiest islands in Moreton Bay.

St. Helena was used as a prison chiefly for long term sentences from the years 1867 until it was closed in 1934 and the prisoners transferred to the South Brisbane Gaol. However, the Government in 1879 decided to transfer all prisoners to St. Helena and dispose of Petrie Terrace Gaol and the site. The intention was to build a prison on the outskirts of Brisbane to hold short term prisoners and those awaiting trial.

A survey of 24 acres had been completed by H. C. Rawnsley on 18 June 1863 of the area later occupied by the South Brisbane Gaol. Robert Porter secured the contract to build the gaol in 18 months for the sum of £16,859. Specifications of the new gaol were for a total area 310 ft. long and 244 ft. wide and an enclosed space of 270 ft. by 255 ft. in 2 two storeyed buildings containing 57 cells. Walls were to be 20 ft. high and built on an 18 inch foundation of cut solid rock. One wing of the old Petrie Terrace Gao1 was demolished and much of the material was used in the new South Brisbane Gaol. Much of the freestone was again used as well as doors and jambs (i.e. the side posts of the cell doors).

The bricks for the building and walls surrounding the gaol were made from clay dug from the paddock of 22 acres facing Ipswich Road which property was originally owned by Andrew Fenwick. Portion of the paddock was subdivided after 1911 and sold as residential sites. The area for clay extraction consisted of a large excavation about 100 yards long, 75 yards wide and 20 ft. deep. The clay extraction area was between Reis Street and Byrne Street about 100 yards from the corner of Ipswich Road  and Reis Street. The area was later filled in and nothing visible remains to show where the many thousands of bricks to build the South Brisbane Gaol were obtained. However, the brick making works of David Fensom at the above site was unable to keep up  the full supply of bricks and at one stage, the contractor had to make some of his own bricks. Timber supplies were a difficulty and at one stage in August 1882 the work was practically at a standstill. The gaol was completed and the building and premises were proclaimed to be a public gaol and prison house of correction within the meaning of the Act in July 1883. Prisoners were conveyed to the new gaol on 29 June 1883 and it has been continuously used as such from that time.

The Gaol stood on elevated but gently sloping land about 100 feet above sea level. In the passing of the years, the area has changed from the secluded bush-land spot with the many fine trees which Surveyor Rawnsley marked on his original plan of this and surrounding reserves in 1863. The Women's Gaol was commenced in 1901, completed late in 1902 and the contractors were A. Lind and Son. It was built on the south western portion of the gaol reserve.

Boggo Road (from which the South Brisbane Gaol derived the colloquial name of Boggo Road Gaol) was cut down opposite the Gaol in 1886 at a cost of £200. At the top end of the reserve opposite the corner of Boggo (Annerley) and Gladstone Roads the road at the time of the hill‑cutting job was cut through the corner of the Gaol Reserve. The land between this portion of new road and Maldon Street (the original road) became what is now known as Gair Park. The name Annerley Road was given to Boggo Road in 1905. Capital punishment was abolished in the year 1922 and subsequently the gallows were dismantled. A grim relic of that era is the gallows beam with its three hooks which is now among the exhibits at Newstead House.

Rawnsley Street is situated on the southern side of the area near the South Brisbane Gaol and was named after H. C. Rawnsley the original surveyor in 1863. The seclusion of the South Brisbane Gaol was ended soon after the completion of its construction in 1883. The Woolloongabba (Dutton Park) Boys' State School was built on the adjoining reserve approximately 300 yards distant from the Gaol in the year 1884 and the similarly named Girls' School on the northern side of the same reserve. In the year 1891 the railway extensions of the Cleveland line from Ipswich Road to Melbourne Street and the South Coast line from Boggo Road Junction Station (now Dutton Park Station) also to Melbourne Street brought railway traffic and residential development. The Boggo (Annerley) Road of the early 1880's was barely formed and situated as it is between hilly ground on both sides, did not require much imagination to ascertain why the original name (Bolgo) had been corrupted to Boggo. Most of the road from the corner of Stanley Street (Clarence Corner), to the foot of the Gaol hill, was as boggy and swampy as the name implied. Annerley Road nowadays is one of the main traffic outlets to and from the southern end of Brisbane.

The administration of Queensland Gaols was the subject of a Board of Enquiry set up in 1887 as a result of representations made by Mr. Jessop M.L.A. for Dalby in 1886. New regulations were adopted, a number of reforms brought in and the Prisons Act of 1890 provided for the appointment of a Comptroller General of Prisons which position is held by Mr. S. Kerr at the present time at the South Brisbane Gaol. As far back as the year 1894, the recommendation was made that when a new Gaol was necessary it should be on the railway line and situated between Brisbane and Ipswich. The more recent establishment of the new Gaol at Wacol was on the railway line and midway between the two cities abovementioned, not that the railway plays any significant part in modern day jail administration.

THE SUBURB OF BARDON

The history of the suburb now named Bardon but previously known as Upper Paddington began on 3rd September 1862 when H. C. Rawnsley completed his survey of the land on the northern side of Cooper's Camp Road towards Grove Estate (now known as Ashgrove) and on the south western side towards where Lilley Road and Simpson's Road crop Ithaca Creek. As the whole area was undeveloped it then had little historical interest.

A Land sale was held on 12th November 1862 but there were only three buyers of the extensive areas offered. In the course of the next few years however, all the area now known as Bardon was purchased by approximately twenty landholders. The original purchasers were Joshua Jeays, Francis Lyon and Edward Wyndham Tufnell who was the first Anglican Bishop of Brisbane. Particulars of their respective land purchases are shown hereunder:

Joshua Jeays. 39 acres extended from the corner of Cooper's Camp Road towards the site once familiarly known as Cobbler's Flats (due to the superabundance of pest weed called cobblers pegs) but later known as Bowman Park. Price paid £78.

Francis Lyon. 38 acres adjoining Joshua Jeays' area i.e. from the western side of the hill on which Bardon House was built and including the Bowman Park area as far as David Street. Price paid £76.

Bishop E. W. Tufnell. 143 acres on the northern side of Cooper's Camp Road i.e. the area bounded by that road Ithaca Creek and Jubilee Terrace. This area was later called the suburb of Jubilee. Another block of 19 acres situated between David Street (Bowman Park) and Ithaca Creek. Price paid £427.

Subsequently, land was purchased by the undermentioned and the figures shown indicate the number of acres:

Purchaser

Acres

H. G. Simpson

325

E. Smith

42

A. C. Gregory

29

D. Riodan

21

A. Mackay

16

L. Carmichael

14

B. L. Barnett

118

N. Hartman 

42

W. J. F. Cooksley

26

R. B. Lowe

20

T. Dempsey

15

G. Thompson

13

Joshua Jeays

79

G. Harris 

84

H. Burroughs

24

T. Armstrong

17

A. Bennett

15

F. Gill

3

Bardon Estate was subdivided in 1915 as a residential suburb. The area of 18 acres now called Bowman Park was purchased.

As in most undeveloped areas, few roads existed in Upper Paddington (now Bardon) in those early years. The few residents, who, when going out at night time, found it necessary to place lanterns on clumps of bushes to guide them on the return journey to their homes.

Joshua Jeays was the first to build a house in the Bardon area. Prior to the time he purchased the land in this district he had built Roma Villa which stands on the corner of Upper Roma Street and Skew Street. There he lived with his wife and family, in the spot then known as Green Hills.

Mrs. Jeays expressed a desire, for health reasons, to live in the Upper Paddington (Bardon) Hills area, and accordingly in 1863 Joshua Jeays built Bardon House. It was built on the lines similar to those in England, of rough stone, with gables, chimneys and casement windows some of which were mere slits in the walls. Each window provided a charming view of the district. Unfortunately, Mrs. Jeays was fated to never live in the house her husband had built for her and he had the heavy hand of sorrow and disappointment laid on him when she passed away before the house was finally completed. Joshua Jeays, owing to his grief and sad memories attaching to the house, likewise never lived in it. It passed to his son Charles and afterwards became the home of his nephew Edwin Lilley.

In 1881 John Stennett purchased 32 acres of the land previously owned by Joshua Jeays and built a fine residence known as “Northam" on the corner of Cooper's Camp Road and Jubilee Terrace, the spot once familiarly known as Stennett's Corner. After John Stennett died in 1903, “Northam" was purchased by Dr. Alfred Sutton who resided there until 1922. Subsequent occupiers were J. S. Badger, the managing director of the Brisbane Tramways Company Ltd. and Mrs. J. Kilroe, widow of the managing director of Finney Isles and Co. Ltd. but as in the majority of large old time homes “Northam" has been converted into flats.

Transport to Upper Paddington (Bardon) in the early days was by one horse waggonette (cab) then by horse drawn omnibus. Johnson and Kavanagh in 1879 were the earliest to provide public transport to Paddington, but John Chalk instituted the first regular line of omnibuses. The stables were originally in Martha Street Paddington and later as the suburb extended towards Upper Paddington and Bardon, new ones were built in Collingwood Street and additional stables in Gilday Street. Owing to the steepness of the hill near the residence of Sir Arthur Rutledge near McGregor Terrace, the omnibus service did not extend beyond Gilday Street (Currie's Store). The hill was subsequently cut down by seven feet and John Atkinson in 1897 ran a line of omnibuses to the corner of Cooper's Camp road and Jubilee Terrace (Stennett’s Corner). The dependency of the residents on public horse drawn vehicles was shown by the frequency of the omnibus service to Paddington (Gilday Street) within walking distance to Upper Paddington (Bardon) that, in 1890, when the settlement of the area had not been fully developed, the service was a fifteen minute one up to noon, a twelve minute one from that time while the periods in which workers travelled was served by a ten minute frequency.

Horse drawn trams did not enter into route competition to Paddington due to the hilly streets. However, soon after the establishment of electric traction early in 1897, an electric tram ran along Caxton Street and was extended to Guthrie Street on 7th September 1899.

Bernhard Street was the next terminus in 1909. An extension to Bardon but only to the corner of Cooper's Camp Road and Jubilee Terrace (Stennett's Corner) was completed on 7th May 1916. The extension of the tramway line to the centre

of Bardon was completed and opened on 4th January 1937.

        The development of Bardon was slow until the residential sub‑division was made. Dairy farms occupied the adjacent paddocks one of which was Carroll's Dairy and Carroll Street perpetuates the name. In the early 1880's a small brickyard owned by Mr. Williams continued to operate for some years until the clay deposits were worked out in the course of time.

Bardon is highly developed nowadays as a popular residential suburb with homes of desirable types of design.

Respective names of the roads, streets and the suburb itself provide a link with the early landholders as shown hereunder:

BARDON SUBURB.

The suburb of Bardon was named after Bardon House which was so called after Bardon Hill about ten miles from Leicester, England, and the birthplace of Joshua Jeays.

He was a partner of Andrew Petrie in the construction of the Petrie Terrace Gaol. Jeays built several other homes and buildings. He was an Alderman of the first Municipality of Brisbane from 1859 till 1864 when he was chosen as Mayor. The first Victoria Bridge was opened by him in that year.

Jeays Street, Bowen Hills perpetuates his name while Jeays Street Sandgate is in honour of his descendants who resided in that suburb.

 

COOPER'S CAMP ROAD.

Cooper’s Camp Road was named after Sir Charles Cowper (pronounced Cooper) who was Premier and Colonial Secretary of New South Wales and as such, declared Brisbane a Municipality in 1859.

NORTHAM AVENUE.

“Northam" was the name of John Stennett's home which was built on the north eastern portion of the 32 acres he purchased from Joshua Jeays in 1881. He was managing director of Elliott Bros. a large firm of wholesale chemists at the comer of Eagle and Elizabeth Streets, Brisbane. This firm amalgamated with Taylor and Colledge and Thomason Chaters and latterly carried on business under the name D.H.A. (Australia) Pty. Ltd.

Northam in Bideford, Devonshire England was the birthplace of J. Stennett.

DAVID STREET, BOWMAN PARADE AND BOWMAN PARK.

These were named after David Bowman M.L.A. for Merthyr Brisbane and Home Secretary in the first Labour Government in Queensland in 1915.

GARFIELD DRIVE.

In 1887, Sir Arthur Rutledge, M.L.A. for Enoggera, who became Attorney‑ General and later, a District Court Judge, purchased seven acres of unimproved land on a hilltop at Paddington Heights from A. Wettenhall.

Sir A. Rutledge built a charming home there and gave it the name “Garfield" after the United States President Garfield for whom he had a great admiration. From 1889 till 1904 Sir Arthur Rutledge resided there and subsequent owners were W. R. Black, Sir Arthur Morgan and R. J. Archibald.

JUBILEE ESTATE.

This area was the original 143 acres purchased by Bishop Tufnell and extended from Cooper's Camp Road along Ithaca Creek and bounded by Jubilee Terrace.

In 1887, the year of the jubilee of Queen Victoria's reign, the land was sub‑divided into residential blocks. It was obvious that the spirit of that memorable year was captured when the naming of the original streets was chosen e.g. Accession, Coronation, Crown Streets., Empress Terrace, Royal Row and Sceptre Road.

 

PADDINGTON.

A namesake of the suburb in London which derives its name Poeddingtun from the Poeddings, a Saxon tribe from the mouth of the Elbe River Valley. This entire tribe crossed over to England and established their home in London. The name thus stems from their name Poedding, and their town (tun).

ITHACA CREEK.

Ithaca, the adjoining suburb through which this creek flows from Bardon, was named after Ithaca, one of the Ionian Isles in Greece. This island was the birthplace of Lady Bowen, wife of Queensland's first Governor.

SIMPSON'S ROAD.

Barnett Road, Armstrong Terrace and Mackay Terrace were named after the early landholders through whose land these respective thoroughfares pass.

WEBBER ST.

Bishop Webber was Bishop Tufnell's successor.

EARLY BRISBANE POST AND TELEGRAPH OFFICES

The most universally known building, in villages, towns and cities of every country of the globe is the Post Office, while the enveloped letter, to or from any place, is civilisation's indispensable  medium of communication. Moreover, the small affixed postage stamp, of multitudinous designs, is the symbol of world wide co‑operation in postal transaction.

Moreton Bay Settlement (as Brisbane was called in 1834) had a change in its postal arrangements, whereby the contract system superseded the previous one by which mails were conveyed by the police or military authorities.

In 1842, after the opening of the Settlement to free settlers, a Police Magistrate (Captain J. C. Wickham) and a Clerk of Petty Sessions (William White) were appointed to act at Brisbane‑the name first given to the Settlement in 1839.

William White combined the duties of Clerk of Petty Sessions and Postmaster (as well as Wharfinger on Queen's Wharf) and on his death in 1843, he was succeeded by George Miller Slade, a former Paymaster of the 60th Rifles Regiment.

Slade died in April 1848 after which date, William Anthony Browne performed the respective duties until 1852.

The combined duties of Clerk of Petty Sessions and Postmaster in the years prior to that date had not been very burdensome as there were few inland mails, while ship mails were infrequent. Population had been growing yearly and it had now become necessary to appoint a full‑time Postmaster.

Captain J. E. Barney was given the position which he occupied until his death on 26 November 1855 when Mrs. Barney took over and continued to act until she retired in 1863 on a gratuity of £2000.

Mrs. Barney died on 5 July 1883 and was buried in Toowong Cemetery Brisbane.

The first letter carrier was appointed in 1852 and the first Queensland postage stamp issued on 1 November 1860 in place of those of New South Wales which had still been used since the date of Separation.

In 1861 the Government appointed Thomas Lodge Murray‑Prior as Postmaster-General and he began his duties in 1862.

The original Brisbane General Post Office of stone and brick was two small rooms which bad been portion of the quarters built in 1829‑30 and previously occupied by the Superintendent of Convicts. It had a frontage of approximately 30 feet to Queen Street. Three panels of white painted fencing between the supporting verandah awning posts, an oil burning street lamp post were on one half of the frontage while the other portion consisted of a wall containing two windows with a doorway entrance between. On the kerb of the footpath three wooden hitching posts for horses were placed. The first Brisbane General Post Office occupied the site of the building erected by the Colonial Mutual Life Assurance Society Ltd. at 62 Queen Street in 1882, and later occupied by various tenants and in later years by Shirleys Shoes Pty. Ltd. next to Edwards and Lamb, all now part of the Queen Street Mall.

In the year 1904, the Colonial Mutual Life Assurance Society Ltd. moved to 289 Queen Street where its business was then carried on from that spot‑next to the General Post Office of the present day. The Society's original premises at that particular site were demolished and a newer building erected in 1931.

Two wooden rooms were subsequently added at the rear of the original G.P.O. as quarters for Captain and Mrs. Barney. Alterations were also carried out to the building in 1867 and consisted of removing the posting boxes to the side of the thoroughfare leading from Queen Street to Burnett Lane and adding 12 feet to the sorting room. Re‑organisation of the location of the money order and registration office was also effected. However, convenient as the alterations were the fulfilment of these postponed, for some years the erection of what was ardently desired‑a new and commodious G.P.O.

In those years, the Telegraph Department was transacted as a separated Department from the business of the Post Office. In Dr. John Lang's Evangelical Church situated on the corner of William Street and Telegraph Lane  (called Stephens Lane after 1902). The site later became portion of the Executive Building (Lands Office). This Church building was originally opened in April 1851 and closed in December 1860 when it was acquired, altered and made ready for the Telegraph Department at the end of January 1861. The Post Office was carried on under the disadvantage of being housed in an unsuitable building and the location of the Telegraph Office was the source of much complaint by the business people of those days. Although the Town Hall, Parliament House and fine post offices at Dalby, Gympie, Ipswich, Maryborough, Rockhampton, Toowoomba and Warwick had been built, the town of Brisbane continued to endure the unsuitable building which served as a G.P.O.

When H. C. Rawnsley completed his survey plan on 21 September 1865 of the block of land in Queen Street between Edward and Creek Streets, it was undoubtedly the beginning of definite action which culminated in the erection of the original wing of the present General Post Office, although the site had been previously chosen by the Postmaster‑General T. L. Murray‑Prior.

The plan provided for an area of 1 acre 1 rood and 10 perches being allotment 33 of Section 30, as a Post Office Reserve together with two lanes respectively named Post Office Lane (later Edison Lane) running from Creek Street and Arcade Lane from Edward Street.

 Strange as it may appear, the fact remains that this area of land which was held under the N.S.W. system did not have a Certificate of Title (Torrens Title) issued until 9 December 1931. The site of the projected G.P.O. had

been previously occupied by a portion of the adjacent Women's Gaol Factory and later by the Police Court. These were demolished in 1871 and made way for the erection of the new Building, later to be known as the General Post Office wing nearest to Creek Street.

Plans were prepared by the architect F. G. D. Stanley and the contract was given to John Petrie to construct the building for £7450. Some dissatisfaction was expressed by competitors regarding the plans and the contract due firstly to the experience the architect had gained by designing previous alterations to the original G.P.O. and thus being in a position to know the requirements of design and secondly against the granting of the contract to John Petrie when his price was about £400 more than the others.

However, in the small population of Brisbane in those days, competent and experienced architects were scarce and it was doubtful whether any of the other contractors had the number of skilled workers available or the important matter of having large quantities of well seasoned timber, as John Petrie had.

The two‑storied building was designed to conform to the requirements of the semi‑tropical climate of Brisbane without detracting from the exterior beauty. Italian style architecture of the classical type was chosen to meet the needs of the climate. The building was 90 feet frontage with a depth of 88 feet and a roadway 14 feet wide on the northern eastern side which thus gave access to the rear of the building as well as being a protection against fire from adjoining premises. On the lower floor the ceiling was 18 ft and 17 ft on the upper storey while a colonnade 10 ft wide surrounding three sides of the building protected the outer walls from heat and rain. The height of the ceilings and the width of the colonnades were the early day architects' means, apart from spacious windows of diffusing the heat. Electric fans were commercially unknown in Brisbane until the early 1890's‑twenty years after the G.P.O. was built. The colonnades were covered by the main roof instead of the ordinary verandahs with small detached roofs. Freestone from Murphy's Creek (80 miles from Brisbane) and local freestone from Albion Heights Brisbane as well as bricks from John Petrie’s clay pit at the corner of New Sandgate and Oriel Roads were used for construction of the front and side walls respectively.

The upper verandah iron palisading, with the ornamental crown in each of the centres was from the foundry of R. R. Smellie and Co., Alice Street, Brisbane, as also were two of the upper columns nearest to Creek Street. Other columns on the front of the building are of freestone. Water, gas, bells and speaking tubes were provided. A Clock costing £150 with a dial of 4 ft 6 inches was built into the pediment and bad striking bells for the hour and quarter hours. The clock face was illuminated at night by gaslight. It remained in the original position on the pediment until the early years of the century when the present circular double-faced electric clock was placed in its position. The space of the original was subsequently closed with bricks. Bells for the original striking clock were placed on the ridge of the roof under a small semi‑circular covered recess but were removed some years before the clock was superseded. On the ground floor, the private letter boxes were fitted up on the side wall facing the north‑eastern colonnade behind which was the deliver room, sorting department and the letter carriers' boxes. The stamp, money order and registration departments were situated on the right side of the main entrance, but the business was transacted through specially built windows. These windows are now bricked up but their previous positions may still be seen nowadays alongside the present registration department. Administrative and clerical offices were on the upper floor. After some delay in completing the construction of the building, the staff moved in on 28 September 1872 and Brisbane had its new General Post Office.

The agitation for a Telegraph Office nearer to the centre of the town was continued and the second similarly designed wing was also built by John Petrie in 1879 at a cost of £19,417. A tower 50 ft. high and level with the roof of the two wings was constructed and formed the entrance archway to the Lane which lies between the two buildings. The original proposal was to build a 100 feet three‑faced clock tower, but as this would have cost at that time an additional £4,000 and as this was regarded as a luxury for Brisbane, then a small town of some 15,000, the plan was shelved and apparently afterwards not considered. It is worthy of mention the Telegraph Office G.P.O. Brisbane was the first city in the Colonies (Australia) to introduce the typewriter in its official business in July 1892 and the experiment was a complete success. Three Ideal Hammond Typewriters were introduced and other Colonies followed the example.

Many large additions have been made to the original buildings. Proposals at various times have been made for a larger G.P.O. In 1888, one was that consideration would be given when new public buildings were to be erected in Queen Street.

Another proposal made a little later projected that the new G.P.O. would be erected on the site of the Normal Schools for Boys and Girls (later occupied by the State Insurance and Government Building and Anzac Square block, now Anzac Square Apartments) when the new Central Railway Station was completed.

THE SUPREME COURT AT BRISBANE

The word court originally indicated an enclosed space and in the architectural aspect, it so continues. It was a term apparently used for judicial tribunals which were enclosures where sat the judges and officials. Counsel, Attorneys and the general public stood outside the bar of the court. Prior to the transfer of judicial activities from those of legislature and administration, the King and his leading councillors sat in his palace to carry out all these functions and consequently the household of the King was termed a court. As all judicial authority is derived from the King, his presence is assumed in all the court, which even not any part of the “curia regis" or King's court, but the curia regis itself.

Judge Milford was gazetted on 3rd April 1857, by the New South Wales Government to preside over the Supreme Court for the Moreton Bay Settlement at Brisbane. The court was established early in May 1857 and was situated in a portion of the building which had been constructed in 1829 for use as the Prisoners Barracks. This building, after the departure of the convicts in 1839, was used for many purposes at successive times and as in many small towns, as Brisbane then was, full utilization of the building was made by various official institutions as the occasion arose. In the portion of the building allotted to the Supreme Court, the court room served as a chapel on Sundays.

The worst class of offenders sat in the gallery and the remainder were accommodated on the lower floor.

The Supreme Court proceedings continued to be held in the same building for many years. Alterations were made from time to time and in the year 1870 additional ventilation was provided by the installation of several windows. However, the inadequacies of the building became more apparent and the provision of a new Supreme Court on a better site was decided by the Government, but it was not until the year 1879 that the removal was made. The old Supreme Court building was situated on the site of the building later occupied by Weedmans Ltd., in Queen Street, Brisbane.

In October 1880, an auction sale was held and the iron, stone, bricks, timber and other materials were bought by Francis Hicks of George Street, Brisbane for £140. At that time, all the former old convict constructed public buildings situated on the western side of Queen Street in the block from the corner of George Street to Albert Street were also sold for removal and thus were removed the ugly reminders of the stern old days of early Moreton Bay Settlement. The allotments respectively situated on the corner of Queen and George Streets and Queen and Albert Streets as well as three allotments situated halfway between those points were sold in early days viz. 1849 and 1850 to the various owners.

The site chosen for the new and latterly, the present Supreme Court was originally occupied on the North Quay frontage by the Convicts' Hospital and Surgeons Quarters. This hospital was used after the convicts departure as the Town Hospital until the first General Hospital at Bowen Park Brisbane was opened in 1867. After that date, the Convict (or Town) Hospital became the Police Barracks until the site was required for the erection of the new Supreme Court.

Accommodation for the Police was provided at Petrie Terrace in the building formerly used as a military barracks. The corner of North Quay and Ann Street was the site of the Surgeon's one acre garden, while the adjoining area in what is now Ann Street was the Commissariat Clerk's quarters and the garden also of one acre alongside the corner of Ann and George Streets. The site was a picturesque one with fine oak trees in line with North Quay, Ann Street and George Street. A beautiful thick clump of the trees shaded the Surgeon's Quarters and the old Hospital buildings, but all the trees had to be removed in the process of levelling the area to a uniform height of four feet above North Quay and preparing for the new building.

The original plans, as prepared by the Colonial Architect, provided for a “T"

shaped building of two storeys to be built with a frontage to North Quay of 230 feet and an average width of 42 feet. In the building plan, the stem of the letter “T" was to extend 100 feet towards George Street. Italian style of architecture was selected as being climatically suitable and financially least expensive in proportion to the requirements of accommodation. The frontage plan for the George Street side provided for protection by arcades on the lower and balconies on the upper storey as this portion of the building is exposed in the summer months to the most heat.

      General internal and office arrangements were designed on the most approved and convenient manner on the lower floor while the court rooms were placed on the upper floor so, as to give the best light ventilation and be removed as far as possible from the noise of the streets. On the lower floor, a large central hall from which corridors lead to the three extremities of the building, the offices, the apartments which included chambers for the four judges (of those days), offices of the Attorney General and Crown Solicitor's Department.

      The offices of the two lastnamed Departments were later relocated to the

Treasury Buildings in Queen Street, and of more recent times to the Crown Law Building in Ann Street diagonally opposite the Supreme Court.

      On the Upper storey of the Supreme Court, each court room had a floor area of 40 feet square or including the galleries for the accommodation of the public the area was 70 ft. by 40 ft. with ceilings of 30 ft. The ceiling of the central hall from the main floor was 55 feet. Originally, the roof was covered with slates but was later covered with galvanised iron. The roof of the central hall was carried to a sharper pitch than on the side windows, owing to an additional height of 15 feet. Although this arrangement diverged from the pure Italian style of architecture, it gave prominence and effect to the central block.

        In 1874, the original design was for an extensive and magnificent building but which, if it had been followed, would have cost more than double the amount provided for the construction. Queensland, as a Colony, was only fifteen years established and the population of Brisbane itself 15,000. In the original design, the lower floor was to be built entirely of stone from Woogaroo (Goodna) and Murphy's Creek quarries. Modifications of the plan were, no doubt, adopted, one being that the lower floor, as well as the upper were built of bricks faced with cement. John Petrie was given the contract in September 1875 and the building was opened on 6th March 1879 the cost being £33,589. At the time of its completion, the Supreme Court ranked next in architectural importance to the stately Parliament House at the lower end of George Street, Brisbane, but in the passing of time and the growth of population, many larger and more expensive buildings for the use of various government departments were constructed. The site chosen for the Supreme Court was, at that time, remote from the noise of street traffic and set as it was, on a square block of land, it was designed to occupy half the space of the area. It tended to beautify that area of the town when viewed from the Victoria Bridge, the river and South Brisbane.

        Regarding the small cottage once situated in the Supreme Court grounds at the corner of George and Ann Streets, the belief of many was that this was the old Hospital of Moreton Bay Settlement days. This cottage was the home of the Supreme Court caretaker, and was not erected until the year 1887‑sixty years after the original Convict Hospital (later used as a Town Hospital) on North Quay was built in 1827. Demolition of all the old convict constructed buildings in the Supreme Court land area was completed during the year 1875. The stone used in the caretaker's cottage came from the walls of the old Petrie Terrace Gaol demolished after 1881.

        The North Quay frontage, in the architectural aspect, was designed as the main entrance to the Supreme Court, but, by common usage, the George Street side soon became the thoroughfare from which the legal fraternity and the general public almost universally entered the Court.

        This Supreme Court burnt down in 1970 and has been replaced by modern structures with the entrance unhesitantly facing George Street, notwithstanding what the Colonial Architect thought was the proper entrance in 1879.

SOME BRISBANE STREETS

WILES STREET

Wiles Street (Camp Hill) was named after the original owners of the area of land (781 acres) Louis Wiles, Henry Wiles, James Kelley and Daniel Mahony who were tenants in common from 2nd March 1863.

BRADSHAW STREET

Bradshaw Street (Lutwyche and Wooloowin). Thomas Bradshaw owned 40 acres in the area through which this street passes.

MASSEY STREET

Massey Street (Hamilton) was named after Daniel Wright Massey, a Councillor of the Hamilton Divisional Board in 1892.

JAMIESON STREET

Jamieson Street (Bulimba). In 1882, Robert Jamieson was a Councillor on the Bulimba Divisional Board.

SOME BRISBANE CITY LANES

If a thoroughfare be variously termed an avenue, a corso, crescent, drive, parade, place, road, street, terrace or a lane, the actual definition denotes little except a drift from monotony. A thoroughfare, whether bearing any of the abovementioned different names in any language, provides an orderly plan by civilization for people to either journey, live, work or do business behind the frontages of the world's myriad building alignments. A lane is usually the narrowest stretch of land forming the above.

The town of Brisbane had no regularly planned system for the provision of lanes as did the towns of Rockhampton and Melbourne. Those lanes that are in use nowadays in Brisbane are, in the majority of instances, either on private property, form pieces of abandoned land originally owned by people long deceased or granted under the old New South Wales system prior to the year 1861. In their present form they can continue to exist, but if any change were desired, such change would entail legal interpretation and an order from the Supreme Court. Some lanes are private property from one end, but public land for the remaining part of the length. Many of the city's blocks have the necessary means of ingress and egress to groups of buildings for goods. Those which are of some length have been termed lanes but in reality are merely dray ways (the term used in the days when goods were conveyed by spring drays or horse drawn vans).

 

BURNETT LANE

Burnett Lane runs from George Street to Albert Street and was named after J. C. Burnett who made several of the earliest surveys of Brisbane.

This block of land with its frontage to Queen Street (western side) was the original site for the official buildings in connection with the convicts‑the residence of the Superintendent of Convicts at the corner of Queen and George Streets, Prisoners' Cells and the Prisoners' Barracks which extended to the corner of Queen and Albert Streets.

Four cottages were built on the site (of what is now the rear portion of the Albert Street Branch of the Commonwealth Saving's Bank, now Commonwealth Banking Corporation) and served as residences for the Chief Warder, Senior Constable and Warders.

It was for the purpose of giving access to the cottages that Burnett Lane was formed.

J. C. Burnett owned 10 acres of land on the eastern side of Mowbray Park. This area was bounded by Lytton Road, the Brisbane River and Eskgrove Street. Burnett's house was situated on what is now Laidlaw Parade. It was from this spot that Burnett left by a small ship to survey in 1847 the district surrounding Bundaberg‑the Burnett. He died in 1854 and was buried in the old Paddington Cemetery.

ISLES LANE

      Isles Lane (originally Foundry Lane) between Queen and Adelaide Streets. This lane was called Foundry Lane until 1916. The name was originally given to this lane because it led to the foundry of A. Cameron where the first iron casting in Brisbane was made on 3rd July 1862 and whose name was seen on some of the early cast iron pillar letter boxes of the town.

      Later the firm of Smith, Forrester, Faulkner and Black continued the foundry and it was here that much of the iron palisading used to ornament and enclose the verandahs of early day Brisbane homes was made.

      After the end of the 1914‑1918 war a syndicate proposed to widen the lane and create an imposing thoroughfare similar to Martin Place Sydney. The scheme in conjunction with the then projected Anzac Square would have been a fine improvement to the city but, due to the very cost of resumptions the scheme did not materialize.

ARCADE LANE

Arcade Lane runs from Edward Street to the rear of the General Post Office. The name was given as the entrance to the lane was opposite Morwitch's Minories and Grand Arcade.

Morwitch's Minories had a frontage to Queen Street of 130 feet and 146 to Edward Street. The building which extended from next to the Oxford (later Grand Central) Hotel to the Edward Street portion of Tattersall's Club consisted of 26 shops, 35 offices as well as a Grand Cellar.

The property was put up for auction in December 1890. Much of the original building was demolished and larger premises erected.

An arcade on a much smaller scale then ran from Queen Street to Edward Street.

In 1960, the last remaining portion of Henry Morwitch's Minories building occupied by Pherous Brothers was sold to the Victorian Government Tourist Bureau. There then appeared on the upper part of the premises the original iron palisading. The name Minories comes from a street in Aldgate, London.

EDISON LANE

Edison Lane (originally Post Office Lane) ran from Creek Street to the rear of the General Post Office.

Barton and White, the firm of electrical engineers which first generated electrical power in Brisbane had their premises in the lane.

It became Edison Lane in the late 1890's.

GENERAL POST OFFICE LANE

General Post Office Lane ran from Queen Street to Elizabeth Street entirely on Post Office property and was included in the original block of 1 acre 1 rood and 10 perches reserved for the Post Office in 1865.

It was originally the southern side of the General Post Office built in 1872 and gave access to the posting boxes and when the Electric Telegraph Office was completed in 1879, the archway connecting the two buildings formed the present lane. The lane on the southern side of the Electric Telegraph Office next to the old entrance to the Commonwealth Bank was formed after that building was completed.

PARBURY LANE

Parbury Lane ran from Eagle Street towards the river and continues in a right hand turn to join Creek Street. It provided entrance to the wharves at which were berthed the ships under the agency of Parbury Lamb and Company.

The wharf of Parbury Lamb was on the south side of the river. Edward Parbury one of the partners of this early established shipping firm died, at Launceston, Tasmania in July 1881.

The sign on the side of the building at the Eagle Street entrance read Parbury Street but the sign on the stand on the footpath a few feet opposite showed the words Parbury Lane.

EAGLE LANE

Eagle Lane (originally Queen’s Lane) ran from Creek Street to a “T" end which entered Queen Street and Eagle Street near the intersection of these streets.

It gave access to the rear of the buildings situated in the triangular block bounded by Queen, Creek and Eagle Streets. The creek which ran from the Reservoir‑a pool of water extending in a diagonal direction across the middle of the block of land from Herschel Street towards where the then Brisbane Fruit Exchange situated in Turbot Street continued through adjacent blocks “reserved for the preservation of water" as far as the present site of the City Hall and then on through the centre of the city blocks between Albert and Creek Streets, where it turned sharply towards Queen Street and passed through the site on which where Piccadilly Arcade stood.

The creek then veered towards the site of the Commercial Bank of Sydney building and made a double turn across Eagle Lane and finally turned further to the right before entering the Brisbane River.

CLARK LANE

Clark Lane (originally part of Eagle Street). This lane was originally called Eagle Street which began at Creek Street on the southern side of the creek and ran along the Petrie's Bight part of Queen Street up to Anne Street (as originally spelled) through the lane now known as Clark Lane.

This lane was named after John Allworth Clark, a merchant tailor and wool importer who had one of his business premises on the corner where Clark Lane, Adelaide and Queen Streets converged. 

He was Mayor of Brisbane in 1891.

Clark Lane was a means of entrance to St. John's Anglican Cathedral Deanery. The Deanery was originally the residence of Dr. Hobbs, the surgeon of the Chasely who arrived in Brisbane on 1st May 1849.

This residence was considered the finest in Brisbane and on the foundation of the Colony of Queensland in 1859, Dr. Hobbs' house became the first Government Residence.

It later became the Deanery.

The stone steps leading from Clark Lane were in the 1950s closed by the erection of a tall wooden gate at the entrance.

FISH LANE

Fish Lane (originally Soda Water Lane). This lane originally ran from Stanley Street to Grey Street. It was part of the rear portion of the reserve of 2½ acres granted to the Church of England in January 1851, but it was not dedicated as a public lane however until the time when Melbourne Street (which is on the

frontage of the land) was widened in 1924. Fish Lane was then extended in a westerly direction through three adjoining blocks to Manning Street.

Soda Water Lane received that name as the Eudone Aerated Water Company had its factory at that address from the early 1870's. George Fish was Secretary of the Brisbane Steam Laundry at the corner of Stanley Street and Soda Water Lane from the early 1880's. He was an Alderman in the South Brisbane City Council from 1901 to 1903. The business originally managed by him was removed to large premises in Ann Street, Fortitude Valley in 1903 and continued as the Fish Steam Laundry Pty. Ltd.

Soda Water Lane became Fish Lane in 1904.

KEID LANE

Keid Lane which runs off Boundary Street, Spring Hill was named after Chas. Keid who arrived with his wife Jane in the sailing ship Fortitude in January 1849 under the immigration scheme sponsored by Rev. Dr. John Dunmore Lang; Chas. Keid was a gardener by occupation and in June 1857 he‑purchased the land described as portion 201 consisting of 1½ acres for £78.10.0. The Alliance Hotel at the corner of Boundary Street and Leichhardt Street (now St. Paul's Terrace) is on the corner of the land once owned by Chas. Keid.

BOUNDARY LANE

Boundary Lane formed the northern top of Boomerang Street near the Tramways Department's building which had a frontage to Coronation Drive

This lane was an historical link with part of the description given by the Colonial Secretary of New South Wales, Sir Charles Cowper on 6th September 1859 when Brisbane was made a city in the year the Colony of Queensland was proclaimed.

An abridged description of the western boundary would be that it continued from Cemetery Street (now Hale Street) to the north corner of D. R. Somerset's 2 acre 23 perches by the south west side of the road forming the north east boundary of that land to a small creek to the Brisbane River and by a line across the river and along Boundary Street. The creek area had long been filled in and was the site of the Tramways Department offices and workshops.

 The tiny Boundary Lane was in the early days Brisbane western boundary.

THE BRISBANE CUSTOMS HOUSE

The active development of the port of Brisbane began after the Moreton Bay District was officially opened to free settlement on 4th May 1842. Brisbane's first commercial activity commenced when John Williams, an enterprising Sydney settler received special permission in December 1841 from the Colonial Secretary of New South Wales‑as was quaintly put‑to squat i.e. to settle without title, on the banks of the Brisbane River at South Brisbane, which at that time was new public land. Williams opened a store for the sale of provisions (excepting spirituous liquors and wines) chiefly to the squatters on the Darling Downs.

After the land sales held in the years 1842 and 1843, the development of the town had been indicated by the ready sale of sixteen allotments on the eastern side of Queen Street from George Street to Edward Street.

Progress continued and the year 1846 in which the Bay (Moreton Bay) was surveyed by Captain J. C. Wickham R.N. the representative of Government Authority in the District, also saw the first newspaper (the Moreton Bay Courier) established and the gazettal that Brisbane was declared a Port of Entry and Clearance and thus facilities were to be provided for intercolonial and oversea trade by vessels.

The following notification had appeared in the N.S.W. Government Gazette of 12th May 1846 and the despatch from Governor Sir George Gipps to William Ewart Gladstone (Secretary of State for the Colonies) reporting these developments is reproduced hereunder:

“Sir, I have the honour to report that on the application of the Collector of Customs and on the recommendation of Mr. Barnes, Inspector of Colonial Customs who is now at Sydney on a special mission from the Commissioners of Customs England, I have established a Branch of the Customs Department at Moreton Bay and that I have appointed, subject to approval of the Lords of the Treasury, the two gentlemen named in the margin (W. A. Duncan and W. R. Thornton) to the positions of Sub Collector and Landing Waiter. I beg to express my hope that as your representative, these gentlemen may be confirmed in the offices to which I have appointed them. In addition to these appointments, I have equally on the recommendation of the Collector and Mr. Barnes sanctioned the employment of a Coxswain and a boat's crew.”

Mr. Duncan, his wife and two children arrived in Brisbane by the S.S. Tamar (130 tons) on 13 June 1846. The port of Moreton Bay Brisbane was officially established on 24 June 1846, and the next visit of the Tamar on 29 June 1846

brought W. R. Thornton (the Landing Waiter i.e. Examining Officer), the Coxswain and the boat's crew of four.

Accommodation was found for Mr. Duncan and his family in a small cottage belonging to Andrew Petrie, the Clerk of Works in the settlement, in Queen St. on the later site of Empire House at the corner of Wharf Street. It was here that the first Customs transactions were carried out but as the total collections for that year totalled only £20 (and the expenditure £846) it can be readily assumed that the task of Customs administration at that time was not very onerous, except the initial work of establishing the tiny office in Mr. Duncan's residence.

As the Port progressed the Customs House was established in the Commissariat Store, the lower storey of the building used by the State Government Stores in William Street, now heritage restored and heritage listed.

The selection of the site for a new Customs House, either at Cleveland or Brisbane was the cause of much anxiety to the citizens of Brisbane. Their fears sprang from the opinions expressed by the Colonial Treasurer in a speech in the New South Wales Parliament indicating the possibility of the Customs House (and chief commercial port) being built at Cleveland, instead of at Brisbane. The apprehension of the leading citizens of Brisbane was such that twenty‑four of them as well as many others attended a public meeting held at the Court House on 19 November 1846. W. A. Duncan and W. R. Thornton were also there. At the meeting it was decided to petition the New South Wales Governor on the matter. Briefly, the petition was based on the fact that the residents of Brisbane had bought land and had made improvements thereon in the form of buildings to the total extent of £30,000 on the understanding that Brisbane was to be the commercial port. It was pointed out that Cleveland was exposed to north‑easterly winds in the shipping season and to build a port there would entail a huge capital outlay.

In 1848, a sum of £1000 had been voted by the New South Wales  Government for the establishment of Customs facilities at Brisbane. Captain Owen Stanley of the H.M.S. Rattlesnake was requested to select a suitable plot of land for a Customs House at Brisbane. He chose on 24 February 1849, the site which was an area of 2 roods and 17 perches and it is on this the present (but now decommissioned), Customs House and grounds now are at Petrie's Bight.

Tenders were called in Sydney on 19 June 1849 and that of James Atkinson was accepted “to furnish the material for and to erect and build a one‑storeyed Customs House at Brisbane" for the amount of tender £407.15.0. This original Customs House was opened on 26 March 1850, but by a tragic coincidence Captain Owen Stanley never saw the building as the announcement of his death in Sydney was published on that day. The building was of cottage‑like design consisting of two rooms with a passage running between and was situated on a much lower level than the present building. Stables occupied the north eastern corner beside the

main vehicular gateway. The selection of the site for the Customs House at this spot by Captain Owen Stanley was the subject of many protests from the captains of early day schooners and sailing ships‑the majority of which then berthed in the South Brisbane area. Their complaints arose chiefly because of the long walk therefrom of approximately a mile “through the bush to the lower end of Queen Street where there were no other business premises" to report and clear their vessels.

        Population of the Settlement in the year 1846 was: Brisbane 829 and Ipswich 103, while in the remainder of the district were 1,325, thus totalling 2,257 and this grew to 67,151 in the year 1866. The Customs House staff increased from 7 in 1846 to 70 in the year 1886. Accommodation for the transaction of Customs business was inadequate for the greatly increased staff. In 1872, a new wing 30 ft by 25 ft had been added to the original building and a verandah on two sides also a new flight of stone stairs was built in 1873. The cellar of the old Town Hall at the top of Queen Street was rented as a Queen's Warehouse (Customs Bond) but as the floor was in a bad state of repair, it did not long serve the purpose. These and other temporary makeshifts were not sufficient nor suitable for the rapidly growing port of Brisbane and although the sum of £2,610 had been spent on additions, alterations and improvements from 1861 to 1874 the opinion of the mercantile community was that a new and larger Customs House would have been more prudent economy.

In November 1884, the Colonial Treasurer instructed the Colonial ‑Architect to prepare plans for a new Customs House which would combine convenient facilities together with a beautiful appearance both from Queen Street and the River. On the late Charles McLay of the Colonial Architect's staff is bestowed the principal credit of ably fulfilling a the task of the architectural design and superintendence of construction. He designed a building 150 ft long, by 75 ft in width of handsome and imposing appearance and which the Queen Street and river frontages were flanked by two pedimental gables, with a space between filled in by massive colonnades comprising a balcony on the first floor carried upon trusses of carved wood and stone. The balustrade of curved ironwork which was imported from England has the initials of the then reigning sovereign V.R. (Victoria Regina) cast into it on both balconies. White marble and black marble for the fireplaces and mantlepieces was from Italy. Interior fittings were of solid red polished cedar for desks, counters, cabinets and tables. From the ground floor to the first floor ran a massive and elegant red cedar staircase. At the Petrie's Bight end well proportioned copper sheathed dome 82 ft in height from the Queen Street level formed with other adornments a distinctive feature in the external appearance. The Long Room 75 ft long and the same distance when measured from the ends of the cross of this stately looking room is of cruciform shape. Support for the dome was by four clusters of pilasters of the Corinthian order at each of the four internal angles of the cross. John Petrie and Son were the contractors and the total cost was £38,836. During the building operations, the Customs occupied the early premises of the Queensland  National Bank in Queen Street two doors from Foundry (Isles) Lane until the new and present Customs House was opened on 2 September 1889. Many changes in internal fittings have occurred and the major one began in September 1947 when the entire interior was re-modelled and modernized. Plans had been made to extend the building on the space of the lawn but the high cost and the lack of uniformity in design precluded the adoption of the scheme.

The pedimental facades on both the Queen Street and river sides bear probably the most unconventional and unique heraldic shields. Neither Queensland nor any of the Australian Colonies been granted a Coat of Arms when the Customs House was completed in 1889. It is worthy of note that Queensland was the first Australian Colony to have this honour on 29 April1893‑thirteen years prior to the next Colony to be likewise bestowed in 1906. The Minister for Works who had his own ideas on symbols of British imperialism chose an adaptation of the reverse side of the medal struck in 1853 to commemorate the cessation of transportation of convicts to Tasmania‑and the consequent beginning of free government to that Colony.

 

It is now over a century since Charles McLay, in conformity with the Colonial Treasurer's instructions, designed and superintended the construction of building, “which would have a beautiful appearance both from the Queen Street and the river". The heraldic shields on the facades may be unconventional (and the head of the kangaroo turned the opposite way), the red cedar furnishings changed to maple, glass, plywood and chromium with modernisation as the. hallmark and by world standards, the Brisbane Customs House may be a comparatively small building. Still, in the opinion of a legion of seafarers it retained nevertheless the distinction externally and internally of being ranked among the most ornate and prettily situated Customs Houses of the world.

WICKHAM STREET

The prevailing, practice of early day traffic in Brisbane Town, as well as elsewhere in the Moreton Bay Settlement, prior to the roads being surveyed, gazetted, aligned and formed, was to travel the distance in a circuitous way between the various centres. A hill was skirted, a lagoon or a creek avoided, except at convenient crossing places, and then suitable ground was chosen on which to complete the journey.

Illustrative of this was the original dray‑track dignified by the term road‑to the northern suburbs of Brisbane and Eagle Farm district of the early days. This track, on the western side of the creek ran along on the side of the grounds of St. James School (originally an Orphan School) about a hundred yards from the western comer of Boundary Street and the present day Wickham Street.

Later, this track was moved to the eastern bank of the creek at that spot. The creek flowed through Fortitude Valley, (Brunswick Railway Station side) to the Water Reserve Lagoon adjacent to the Valley Baths (now situated in Wickham Street).

Surveyor Henry Wade's carefully drawn plan dated 23 October 1843 and that of James Warner in 1848 shows the route of the track as passing in a slightly circular direction and eventually linking up with the present day area near the Waterloo Hotel and the street now identifiable as Ann Street. In those times, the survey plans showed Ann (then correctly shown as Anne) Street as merely a “proposed" road. If there had not been difficulties in travelling, as there were over Duncan's Hill opposite All Hallows' Convent's present situation, it would have had precedence over Wickham Street as a trafficable street. The survey plan of J. C. Burnett dated 1 October 1851 shows the original direction of the 700 yards of Wickham Street from its intersection with Boundary Street to where it then terminated at Brunswick Street.

Surveys were made in 1856 of the area in which Wickham Street runs as far as the Valley Police Station, or Police Office, as shown on the plan. The area bounded by Ann Street, Church Street to the Railway Line and Brookes Street was portion of the Water Reserve which became the Lock‑up Reserve and from the eastern part of this last named area, the Church of England Reserve was granted in 1858. An air of tardiness seemed to have prevailed regarding the erection of the church and the building of the street. The original Holy Trinity Church of England facing the Ann Street portion of the Reserve was opened by Bishop Hale 28 July 1877 while Wickham Street surveyed in 1856 was opened from near Brunswick Street comer to Bridge Street near the Valley Baths 28 April 1876.

It was not until 1880 that Wickham Street was further extended from Bridge Street, through the Lock‑up Reserve, the Church Reserve and the land of nine owners between Brookes Street and the spot where Wickham Street by that name terminates, joins with Ann Street and the thoroughfare becomes Breakfast Creek Road. As far back as 1870, aldermen had advocated the continuation of Wickham Street from the Valley corner but financial stringency had delayed the extension. The plea of heavy traffic by the only then existing thoroughfare viz Ann Street, was put forth while other opinions then held were that the money being spent on what was then considered an unnecessary street could be better spent on drainage of the area. Several owners gave land for the extension free while others accepted compensation below the value of the land. Other opinions expressed regarding the construction of Wickham Street in that area were that some owners who, having purchased low lying land, as some parts were, had seen their opportunity to dispose of their properties.

Nowadays, to the present day passerby, travelling on the modern concrete and bitumen surfaces of this street, the comparison with the original state of its foundations, culverts and bridges would show the pattern of many other thorough‑ fares of early day Brisbane. Wickham Street from Boundary Street lay between two hilly ridges and from Brunswick Street to Bridge Street and from Brookes Street to Ann Street the area was low‑lying. In 1865 Duncan's Hill in Ann Street (opposite All Hallows' Convent) was cut down 15 feet and the road metal and small stone was used chiefly for the formation and building of Lower Ann Street and the surplus material used in Wickham Street near Brunswick Street. A further cutting down of Duncan's Hill in the year 1876 produced 15,600 cubic yards of road metal and filling material which was used in nearby Wickham Street. The excavation of the railway cuttings at Bowen Hills as well as the tunnel there also provided material to form the Wickham Street as known nowadays. Much of the stone excavated from Duncan's Hill was used as building stone and helped to compensate for the cost of the work, but the work of reducing the grade of this Hill was considered a very expensive undertaking for the Brisbane of those days.

Several changes and improvements have, of necessity, been effected since the days of J. C. Burnett's plan. In the year 1877 an area of 17 perches was truncated from L. Cusack's allotment next to the premises of Drysdales Ltd, at the corner of Wickham and Boundary Streets to give easier access to Wickham Street. A further 19 perches was resumed at the same corner in 1927 when the newly constructed Barry Parade was nearing completion. Warren Street from Wickham Street to Ann Street was permanently closed when Centenary Park was formed in 1925 and the truncation of K. M. Smith's corner at Botha Street eliminated the previously existing, “S" bend at that spot. The corner of Wickham Street and Brunswick Street opposite McWhirters was truncated 10 feet after Thornhill's Grocery Store was burnt down in 1876 while in 1924 another 18 feet was taken off the corner.

It was appropriate and deserving that Capt. J. C. Wickham R.N. who, in his official capacity played such an important part from 1846 to 1859 in Brisbane Town, Moreton Bay Settlement and who saw much of its early history made, should be honoured by the naming, of Wickham Street. This street, from the northern end of the city when joined by Queen Street, was for a long time a central commercial street of Brisbane which had grown more than a hundred‑fold in area, population and trade since the days when J. C. Wickham was its leading citizen.

DEIGHTON ROAD and DEIGHTON ESTATE

Deighton Road is situated between the South Brisbane suburbs of Highgate Hill and Dutton Park. It was named after Edward Deighton who in November 1860 and June 1861 purchased eight portions of land in that area totalling 83 acres. The. area was bounded by the thoroughfares now known as Annerley (originally Boggo Road) from the corner of Gladstone Road to the comer of Gloucester Street along that street to the Gloucester Street Railway Station, up Deighton Road to where Park Road West joins and continues along to a line running from the corner of Louisa Street and the foot of West Street to Gladstone Road and back to the corner of Annerley Road and Gladstone Road. Deighton owned all this area, excepting a rectangularly shaped block of 10 acres belonging to Charles Fitzsimmons. This was bounded by the eastern side of Deighton Road, part of Park Road West and Linden Street to a line joining, up with Gladstone Road.

Edward Deighton, a native of Cambridge England, was born in 1833. His father Joseph Nathan Deighton was a partner in J. & J. J. Deighton who, for some years, were publishers to the University of Cambridge. He attended the Cavendish Grammar School in Suffolk and later studied under a private tutor to prepare him for the University. However, owing to the death of his father his plans were changed and young Deighton came to Australia in 1852. He spent some time with Mr. Piddington and later was in the office of Mr. Dillon a Sydney solicitor but the practice of law was not attractive and Deighton secured an appointment in 1855 with the Colonial Architect's office in Sydney. After four years service, Edward Deighton was chosen to organize the Department of the Colonial Architect under Charles Tiffin who held that position in the new Colony of Queensland. This department was amalgamated in 1871 with the Public Works Office and Deighton continued as Chief Clerk of the new department.

In 1877 he was appointed Under Secretary of the Dept. of Public Works after Mr. A. 0. Herbert the then previous Under Secretary took up the position of Commissioner for Railways. The Mines Department in 1881 was also added to the Works Department and Deighton was appointed Under Secretary for Mines and Works in which position he continued until his retirement on pension in 1888.

The original survey of the area of land once owned by Deighton was completed by G. Pratten on 20 January 1858 and subsequent sub-divisional surveys by G. T. McDonald on 25 April 1887 and Hamilton and Raff on 18 April 1898. In the early 1880's, the eastern portion of the estate from the corner of Gladstone and Annerley Roads towards Gloucester Street (near Burkes Hotel) and as far back as Lochaber (originally James Street) was sold and became a populated area soon afterwards. Another area of 7 acres was also owned by Deighton. It was bounded by part of Dornoch Terrace, Gladstone Road down to Blakeney Street corner. On the higher part of this area now stands “Torbreck" the first multi storey Home Unit building.

On 20 July 1894, after a short illness Edward Deighton aged 61 years passed from this world. His grave in South Brisbane Cemetery marked by a small freestone cross is situated on the knoll known as Oven's Head about fifty yards from a peaceful bank of the Brisbane River and five hundred yards distant in a line to the Gladstone Road Boundary of the area which perpetuates his surname in Deighton Road, Deighton Estate. Mrs. A. A. Deighton died at the age of 71 on 1 December 1910.

Most of the streets in the area once owned by Edward Deighton bear the Christian names of his family.

EDWARD STREET

Edward Street, (now Grantham Street) and Deighton Road (his Christian and surname).

CAMBRIDGE STREET

Cambridge Street (changed in 1905 to Park Road West). Cambridge was the birthplace of Deighton.

STEPHENS ROAD

Stephens Road (part of which runs through the north eastern part of the estate was changed to this name from the original name of Beauly Terrace in 1887) was named after the maiden name of Deighton's first wife.

NELSON STREET

Nelson Street. (Nelson was the maiden name of Deighton's second wife).

TILLOT STREET

Tillot Street. (named after Horace Tillot Deighton‑a son).

GERTRUDE STREET

Gertrude Street, which runs from the western boundary of the estate was named after his daughter Gertrude.

GOVERNORS' NAMES IN QUEENSLAND

The giving of place names is as old as history and widespread in that it exists in every recorded language. Queensland, like the other Australian Colonies, was dissimilar to older countries in the matter of the bestowal of names for the various towns and the many other geographical features. In the long settled older countries, names were evolved from a descriptive entity, a historical incident or a certain feature of geographical aspect by which the place became known. In Queensland's initial development associated with exploration, the influence of Place naming was rather by a personal system as evinced by the fact that of fourteen seaports, eleven bear names belonging to historic personalities‑a preponderance seldom reached in any Australian State or English speaking country.

So, as the leading personalities of the Colony, early day Governors were honoured in the naming of diversified features and activities such as bridges, cities, counties, downs, distilleries, hospitals, hospital wards, hotels, lakes, masonic lodges, mountains, parks, ports, rivers, railway stations, roads, streets, suburbs, ships, towns and townships, as evidence of their respected popularity. In several instances, the wife, or a member of a Governor's staff also shared in the honour of having, their names perpetuated. The respective name links of the Governors only include those with whom historical associations with the Colony (State) of Queensland were bestowed. Queensland was, of course, under the jurisdiction of New South Wales until Separation was effected on 10th December 1859.

MAJOR GENERAL LACHLAN MACQUARIE

Governor of New South Wales from 1 January 1810 to 1 December 1821.

Macquarie Street, New Farm and Macquarie Street, St. Lucia, Brisbane. It is a more of a coincidence than perhaps a historical link that J. C. Wickham Queensland's first Government Resident in the Moreton Bay Settlement as it was then known, owned Portion 52 of land (30 acres), the frontage of which is Macquarie Street opposite New Farm Wharf. The land was subdivided in 1885.

MAJOR GENERAL SIR THOS. MAKDOUGALL BRISBANE, K.C.B.

Governor of New South Wales from 1 December 1821 to 1 December 1825.

The City of Brisbane, now extends over an area of 375 square miles. It has been the capital of Queensland since Separation in 1859.

Brisbane River, 215 miles long and the best commercial river in Australia.

Brisbane Street, Brisbane Avenue and Brisbane Corso are the respective names given to thoroughfares in nine of Brisbane suburbs.

The word Brisbane appears as the first part of the business names of over 150 trading firms, manufacturers, societies, institutions ‑and the like which carry on their activities in the City of Brisbane.

LIEUTENANT-GENERAL RALPH (afterwards SIR RALPH DARLING)

        Governor of New South Wales from 19 December 1825 to 22 October 1831.

Darling Downs, a rich agricultural area of 5,625 square miles discovered by Allan Cunningham on 6 June 1827 and named after Sir Ralph Darling.

Dumaresq River (also known as the Severn River) which forms part of the boundary between New South Wales and the area now known as Queensland. The Dumaresq River was called after the maiden name of Lady Darling, wife of the Governor.

Condamine River a headstream of the Darling River, could also be included as Thomas de la Condamine was A.D.C. and Military Secretary to Governor Darling. Condamine township 236 miles west of Brisbane.

COLONEL PATRICK LINDESAY

Colonel Patrick Lindesay administered the Colony of New South Wales from 22 October 1831 to 2 December 1831.

Mount Lindesay, 4,064 feet in height situated in the Macpherson Range, South Queensland. Colonel (afterwards Sir Patrick) Lindesay had previously been stationed in Moreton Bay Settlement as Commanding Officer of the 29th Regiment.

SIR GEORGE GIPPS, KT.

Governor of New South Wales from 24 February 1838 to 11 July 1846.

Gipps Street, Fortitude Valley, Brisbane. This street runs from Ann Street to St. Paul's Terrace. Prior to the construction and subsequent opening of the Story Bridge over the Brisbane River in July 1940, Gipps Street was used only for its local residential and business traffic. However, after the quietude of a century since it was originally surveyed and formed, it has now become a very busy thoroughfare for the traffic from the Story Bridge to and from the north western suburbs of Brisbane.

SIR MAURICE CHARLES O'CONNELL, K.C.M.G.

Sir Maurice Charles O’Connell administered the Colony of Queensland on four occasions viz., from 4 January 1868 to 14 August 1868, from 2 January 1871 to 12 August 1871, from 12 November 1874 to 23 January 1875 and from 14 March 1877 to 10 April 1877.

O'Connelltown was an early named suburb of Brisbane. It was bounded by the suburbs of Swan Hill, Windsor Railway Station and the land between the railway line and the upper reaches of Breakfast Creek as the eastern boundary and thence to Bowen Bridge. The Eildon Post Office could be regarded as the centre. Since 1914, the name has fallen into disuse when the horse drawn omnibuses were superseded by electric trams.

O'Connelltown was one of the suburbs on the side destination boards of the omnibuses. The suburb is now absorbed into that of Windsor, an adjoining suburb.

O'Connell County‑west of Townsville. O'Connell Street (twice) O'Connell Terrace and O'Connell Place are thoroughfares in four of Brisbane's suburbs.

Le Geyt Street in O'Connelltown (opposite Eildon Road) honours the maiden name of Lady O'Connell. She was the daughter of Colonel Philip Le Geyt, Commanding Officer of the 63rd Regiment, Jersey, Channel Islands.

SIR CHARLES AUGUSTUS FITZROY, K.C.H., K.C.B.,

        Sir Charles Augustus Fitzroy was Governor of New South Wales from 3 August 1846 to 17 January 1855.

        Fitzroy River, the longest river on the eastern Australian seaboard was named after him; also Fitzroy Downs an expanse of country about twenty miles from the town of Roma.

        Mary River, which passes through Gympie and Maryborough districts was named after Lady Mary Fitzroy, wife of the Governor.

        Maryborough, a city 161 miles north of Brisbane was named after the Mary River.

SIR WILLIAM THOMAS DENISON, K.C.B.,

Sir William Thomas Denison was Governor of New South Wales from 20 January 1855 to 22 January 1861.

Port Denison is one of the best harbours on the east coast of Australia, and was named after him.

The North Queensland town of Bowen is situated on Port Denison. It was Sir William Thomas Denison who signed the proclamation granting Separation to the Colony of Queensland.

SIR GEORGE FERGUSON BOWEN, G.C.M.G.

Sir George Ferguson Bowen was the first Governor of the newly proclaimed State of Queensland from 10 December 1859 to 4 January 1868.

Bowen, the North Queensland seaport was named after him.

Bowen River a tributary of the Burdekin. Bowen Hills a northern suburb of Brisbane and the railway station of Bowen Hills.

Bowen Bridge which spans Enoggera Creek in the Bowen Bridge suburb.

Bowen Park the site of the National Agricultural Society's Showground.

Bowen County in the Maryborough district, Gin Gin and Mount Perry district.

Bowenville, a township on the western railway 136 miles west of Brisbane.

Bowen Downs in the Muttaburra District.

Bowen appears as the name for eight thoroughfares in various suburbs of Brisbane.

Countess and Roma Streets in the inner city of Brisbane were named in honour of Lady Diamantina Bowen wife of the Governor. Lady Bowen before her marriage to Sir George Ferguson Bowen was Countess Diamantina di Roma.

She was a Countess in her own right and her name was inscribed in the Libre d'Or, the record kept of ancient Venetian families.

Ithaca, a suburb of Brisbane, was named after Lady Bowen's birthplace‑the Island of Ithaca in the Ionian Islands group which were under the Venetian Republic from the year 1396 to 1797.

Roma, a town 318 miles on the railway west of Brisbane, was called after Lady Bowen's maiden surname. Roma was the first town established after Queensland was granted Separation from New South Wales.

Diamantina River and Diamantina Lakes are situated in the South West of Queensland.

Lady Bowen Hospital for Women was opened as early as the year 1868 in a small cottage in Margaret Street Brisbane. It moved to a larger building in Ann Street and in the year 1889 opened in a much larger building in Wickham Terrace near the Brisbane Grammar School and Albert Park.

In 1938, after the completion of a more modern block at the General Hospital, the activities of the Lady Bowen Hospital were transferred to that building.

COLONEL SAMUEL WENSLEY BLACKALL

Colonel Samuel Wensley Blackall was Governor of Queensland from 14 August 1868 to 2 January 1871.

Blackall a town 378 miles west of Rockhampton was named after him.

The town of Blackall could be regarded, for practical geographical purposes, as the centre of Queensland.

Blackall Range which runs for about fifty miles between Brisbane and Cooroy at a distance of approximately twenty miles from the coast.

Blackall Bridge spans Kedron Brook on the Grange Road Brisbane.

Blackall Street in which is situated the Brisbane Victoria Military Barracks.

Mount Blackall the highest point of the Toowong Cemetery in Brisbane. It is in that portion where Colonel Blackall's grave is situated. He was the first person to be buried in that cemetery. The grave of his longtime friend Sir Maurice O'Connell is only fifteen yards distant.

Blackall Terrace situated in the suburb of East Brisbane.

SOME BRISBANE STREETS

HAZELMOUNT STREET, BOWEN HILLS.

This street was named after the residence of Acheson Overend who built the South Brisbane Dry Dock. The site of this fine home is now occupied by a service station.

CASWELL STREET, EAST BRISBANE

Caswell Street named after T. W. Caswell who was a member of the Woolloongabba Divisional Board (the previous municipal authority of the South Brisbane City Council in the 1880's).

T. W. Caswell once owned the land on which the Woolloongabba Post Office is now situated.

 

BURTON STREET, INDOOROOPILLY.

G. Burton was a member of the Taringa Divisional Board in the 1890's.

GOVERNORS' NAMES IN QUEENSLAND

        These Governors held office during the last half of the 19th century. It can be stated that every one of the Governors did something towards the betterment of the people to whom he represented the Crown. The infrequent mistakes and the few false steps Queensland made in the past were not in any degree due to want of foresight, negligence nor obliquity of temperament on the part of Governors. Any differences were of honest opinion only and possibly non‑pliability of mind due to lengthy environment of the administration of Crown Colonies as distinct from self‑governing ones.

Following the death, of Colonel Samuel Wensley Blackall after less than three years in office as Governor, the administration of the Colony of Queensland was taken over by Sir Maurice O'Connell from 2 January 1871 to 12 August 1871 when Governor Blackall's successor in office, the Marquis of Normanby, arrived.

MARQUIS OF NORMANBY

The Marquis of Normanby (George Augustus Constantine Phipps) was Governor of Queensland from 12 August 1871 to 12 November 1874 held the titles Earl of Mulgrave, Viscount Normanby and Baron Mulgrave of Mulgrave all in the County of York in the Peerage of the United Kingdom and Baron Mulgrave of New Ross in the County of Wexford in the Peerage of Ireland, P.C. Governor and Commander in Chief of the Colony of Queensland and its dependencies.

He was born at Whitby England, near which seaport Captain Cook in his early life, was apprenticed to a Grocer prior to engaging in his illustrious seafaring career.

Normanby River in the Cooktown area was named after him.

Normanby, an inner city suburb of Brisbane situated in the North Western

Normanby, which was the first railway station on the original line to Sandgate after leaving Roma Street.

Normanby Street, Indooroopilly and Normanby Terrace in the suburb of Normanby.

Normanby Hotel in Brisbane and the Normanby Hotel in Rockhampton.

Normanby Sound in the open entrance to the south part of Goode Island, the south west part of Hammond Island, the west part of Thursday Island and north part of Prince of Wales Island.

Normanby Shire, which since 1948 has now been included in the No. 3 Division Moreton Shire.

Normanby Distillery and Normanby Rum.

Mulgrave Street, Spring Hill, Brisbane, after the second title of the Marquis of Normanby.

Mulgrave River, Mulgrave Shire in North Queensland and Mulgrave Island near Thursday Island.

Russell River in the Babinda district, North Queensland, was named after the maiden name of the wife of the Marquis of Normanby.

Two men, Captain James Cook and the Marquis of Normanby, born a century apart, after having spent their early lives near the small town of Whitby, have their names historically perpetuated in a small adjacent area in North Queensland 14000 mile's from that spot, by the naming of Cooktown and the Normanby and Mulgrave Rivers.

WILLIAM WELLINGTON CAIRNS, C.M.G.

William Wellington Cairns was Governor of Queensland from 13 January 1875 to 14 March 1877.

The major northern city of Cairns was named after him.

This town was originally called Thornton after William Thornton the then Collector of Customs in the Colony of Queensland. After the discovery of gold in the Hodgkinson area inland from the township, it was named Dickson in honour of the then Colonial Treasurer. However, when the town was surveyed, it was called after the Governor William Wellington Cairns.

Wellington Road, East Brisbane was formerly called East Boundary Road as it formed the original eastern boundary of early Brisbane township. Ten other thoroughfares in Brisbane are called Wellington. These though derived from the then continuing colonial fascination with the deeds of the Duke of Wellington.

Cairns Shire and Cairns County (in the district of Leichhardt).

Cairns Street, East Brisbane is the centre of three adjoining streets bearing the names of Governors Cairns, Blackall and Kennedy, while three other thoroughfares in Brisbane suburbs perpetuate the name of Cairns.

SIR ARTHUR EDWARD KENNEDY, G.C.M.G., C.B.,

Sir Arthur Edward Kennedy was Governor of Queensland from 11 April 1877 to 2 May 1883.

Arthur Terrace and Kennedy Terrace in the Ithaca and Red Hill suburbs of Brisbane were named after him; also County of Kennedy in the Maranoa District.

Georgina River and Georgina County (Boulia district) were named after Governor Kennedy's daughter Georgina Mildred Kennedy.

SIR ARTHUR HUNTER PALMER

Sir Arthur Hunter Palmer administered the Colony for three periods, viz. from 2 May 1883 to 6 November 1883, from 9 October 1888 to 1 May 1889 and from 15 November 1895 to 9 April 1896.

He was also Premier from 1870 to 1874.

Palmer River and the township of Palmerville in North Queensland and the Palmer Goldfield were named after him; also the County of Palmer in the Wyandra and Charleville districts.

Palmer Street, Windsor, Brisbane, Hunter Street and Palmer Street in the Toowong Suburb, are called after Sir Arthur Hunter Palmer.

SIR ANTHONY MUSGRAVE, K.C.M.G.

Sir Anthony Musgrave was Governor of Queensland from 6 November 1883 to 9 October 1888.

Anthony Street and Musgrave Street are adjoining thoroughfares off Montague Road near Davies Park, West End, Brisbane.

Musgrave Street in the Ithaca suburb was changed in 1920 to Tooth Avenue after the Mayor of Ithaca Alderman Leslie H. Tooth.

Musgrave Parade Ashgrove was changed to McLean Parade in 1920.

Musgrave Park was formerly called the South Brisbane Recreation Reserve until 1885.

Musgrave Road was originally called Waterworks Road from the Normanby Hotel but in 1890 the name was changed to Musgrave Road.

Musgrave Wharf in the South Brisbane reach was opened in 1889. It continued as a busy overseas wharf until 1938 when the shipping activities from this reach were accommodated at Newstead Wharves. The change was partly due to the effect of the building of the Story Bridge.

Musgrave Cold Stores, Stanley Street adjoining the Musgrave Wharf were the main Cold Stores of Brisbane in the 1880's until larger Cold Stores, were built at Hamilton.

Port Musgrave on the west coast of Cape York Peninsula about 100 miles from Thursday Island. Musgrave Telegraph Station west of Cooktown.

County of Musgrave in the Mitchell district.

Lady Musgrave Lodge was founded in 1885 by Lady Musgrave as an accommodation centre for young women.

Lucinda the Queensland Government Steam Yacht of 310 tons was named after Lady Jeannie Lucinda Musgrave, the wife of Sir Anthony Musgrave. The ship's bell and small defence cannon are among the exhibits of the Queensland Historical Society at Newstead House.

Lucinda Point in North Queensland was named after the abovementioned steam yacht.

Lucinda Street, Woolloongabba and Lucinda Street, Taringa were also named after the second christian name of the Governor's wife.

FIELD MARSHAL SIR HENRY WYLIE NORMAN, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., C.I.E.

         Field Marshall Sir Henry Wylie Norman was Governor of Queensland from 1 May 1889 to 31 December 1895.

Norman Park a suburb in the eastern part of Brisbane, was named after him; as was  Norman Avenue and Norman Crescent as well as Norman Park Railway Station situated in this area.

         Lady Norman Ward in the Children's Hospital Brisbane.

         Norman Hotel, Ipswich Road, Woolloongabba, was built in the year 1889.

         Thirteen thoroughfares in Brisbane bear the name of Norman.

THE RIGHT HON. LORD LAMINGTON K.C.M.G.

         The Right Honourable Lord Lamington (Charles Wallace Alexander Napier Cochrane Baillie) was Governor of Queensland from 9 April 1896 to 20 June 1901.

         The Lamington National Park in the Lamington Plateau was named after him. This park is approximately 4,000 feet above sea level and comprises an area of 48,000 acres. It is situated about 50 miles south of Brisbane. Lamington township is in the area abovenamed.

         Lamington Bridge which spans the Mary River at Maryborough and the Lamington Hotel situated nearby on the northern bank of the river.

         County of Lamington east of Normanton in the Burke district.

         Lady Lamington Women's Hospital was established in 1900 and so continued until 1938 when the activities were transferred to the modern building at the General Hospital. The Lady Lamington Women's Hospital building, with many additional buildings in the area, is now part of the Lady Gowrie Child Centre.

         Lamington is the name of four thoroughfares in the suburbs of Brisbane.

         Mount Lamington in New Guinea is also called after Lord Lamington.

         Of more Plebian note, the cake made famous in many a school and organisational fundraising drive, the “lamington,” being a sponge cake, cut into small rectangles and dipped in melted chocolate, then coated with coconut, is derived from a recipe introduced by Lady Lamington and named after her.

SIR SAMUEL WALKER GRIFFITH, G.C.M.G., P.C.

Sir Samuel Walker Griffith administered the State of Queensland from 21 June 1901 to 24 March 1902.

        Sir Samuel was one of Australia’s leading jurists and High Court Chief Justices, but had an earlier career as a State politician and party leader.

Cape Griffith, a bold rocky headland 11 miles north of the entrance to the Lockhart River between Cape Direction and Cape Weymouth on Cape York Peninsula.

Griffith Street New Farm and Merthyr Road (formerly Racecourse Road) New Farm.

Merthyr suburb was also named in honour of the birthplace Merthyr in Wales of Sir Samuel Griffith.

County of Griffith in the Kennedy district. North Queensland.

SIR HERBERT CHERMSIDE, G.C.M.G., C.B.

Sir Herbert Chermside was Governor of Queensland from 24 March 1902 to 10 October 1904.

Chermside suburb is located in the north western part of Brisbane between the older suburbs of Lutwyche and Downfall Creek.

Four thoroughfares in various suburbs bear the name Chermside.

LORD CHELMSFORD, K.C.M.G.

        Lord Chelmsford (Frederick John Napier Thesiger) was Governor of Queensland from 20 November 1905 to 26 May 1909.

        Lord Chelmsford featured in the infamous Zulu Wars of 1879-1880 and his military career never recovered from the disaster at Isandhlwana.

Chelmsford Avenue in the suburb of Windsor, Brisbane, is named after him; likewise, Chelmsford County in the Cook district North Queensland.

SIR WILLIAM MACGREGOR, G.C.M.G., C.B.

Sir William Macgregor was Governor of Queensland from 2 December 1909 to 16 July 1914.

MacGregor Avenue Bardon, was named after him.

 This avenue leads to Government House and Sir William MacGregor was the first Governor to occupy the newly acquired Government House “Fernberg".

The newer suburb of Macgregor near Mt Gravatt, is also named after him.

STANLEY STREET (BRISBANE)

The story of Stanley Street (or Stanley Quay) as it was originally named, began after the survey in 1842 by Henry Wade of the allotments near the area from the present Grey Street Bridge along towards Russell Street.

Subsequently, in various years to 1879 Surveyors Warner, Burnett, Galloway, Rawnsley, Sinnott and St. John Wood respectively carried out road and sub‑divisional surveys as far as East Boundary Road (Wellington Road) where Stanley Street then terminated.

Stanley Quay was named after Lord Stanley who, was Colonial Secretary in Lord Robert Peel's Ministry in England during, the year of Wade's survey in 1842.

The original survey did not provide for allotments on the river frontage until some years later. In the course of time the thoroughfare was greatly extended beyond the riverside area and consequently the term Quay, as applied to it, was considered a misnomer and the name Stanley Street was adopted.

However, the two names, Stanley Quay and Stanley Street were shown as the business address of various firms in that thoroughfare in the late 1860's. The name given from the site of the present South Brisbane Municipal Library was Stanley Street East.

The original plan showed Stanley Street as continuing in a straight line from Sidon Street to Vulture Street. At that time the South Brisbane Dock Reserve was of an irregularly shaped triangular block of land, bounded by Stanley Street on the western side. The opportunity was taken in 1873 before the commencement of excavating the South Brisbane Dr Dock began to re‑align Stanley Street to intersect Vulture Street about fifty yards in a south easterly direction from the original right angle Vulture Street intersection (near the old South Brisbane Town Hall). An area of 1 rood 2 perches was converted from the Dry Dock reservation to form part of Stanley Street while on the opposite side of the street the corresponding 1 rood 2 perches was left to remain as part of the original street. It remained as such until 1954 when that area of street was closed and included in the eastern side of Memorial Park, and is identifiable by the low concrete wall.

Stanley Street from Sidon Street to Vulture Street was the frontage of three early day residences built on this elevation and reached by flights of steps from the footpath. The houses were removed when Memorial Park was formed. This original semi‑circular street frontage area formed a convenient standing place for the horse drawn cabs and vehicles awaiting the arrival of railway passenger trains from the South Coast (Southport) and Cleveland lines at the Stanley Street Station opposite this spot, until the line was opened to Melbourne Street on 21st December 1891.

In the year 1883, Stanley Street was improved between Vulture Street and Annerley (Boggo) Road when a small bridge  opposite the Farmers Arms (Hotel Gloucester) was removed and the street brought out to its full width. The Woolloongabba Divisional Board (the Municipal authority) in 1886 borrowed £10,000 for the widening, and repairs of that portion of Stanley Street from Annerley Road to Merton Road. This area was on the southern boundary of the “Water Reserve for a supply of water to South Brisbane and a camping Reserve for Drays".

It originally consisted of a chain of eight lagoons in the area bounded by Vulture Street, Wellington Road and Stanley Street to Merton Road. The area towards Annerley Road became familiarly known as the One Mile Swamp and a 7 ft deep creek ran across Stanley Street on that spot. This portion of Stanley Street remained the narrowest part on account of the heavy expenditure in bringing it only to half of its present day width. It remained as such until the mid‑1920's when the work of widening, re‑aligning the tram tracks, the demolition of the shop buildings on the northern side and the re‑building of the entire frontage from Annerley Road comer to Merton Road where stood the Hotel Morrison, took place. In the year 1886 Stanley Street from Merton Road to Wellington Road had been widened to 99 ft. by converting a strip of land from the Railway Reserve to road purposes.

Stanley Street as previously stated terminated at Wellington Road in the early day road surveys. The 146 acres of land bounded by Wellington Road, Vulture Street East, Kingfisher Creek (since filled in) and Norman Creek had not been sub‑divided nor roads built through the area.

In December 1881, D. F. Longland's 311 acres between Longland Street and Withington Street was the first sub‑division and was followed by Thos. Grenier's 24 acres between Wellington Road and Fisher Street in June 1884.

The next sub‑division of the area was in August 1884 when Joseph Darragh's 261 acres were cut into allotments‑between Withington Street and Edgar Street. However, Stanley Street East as a continuous thoroughfare did not come until Thos. Mowbray's 24 acres between Fisher and Longland Streets were sub‑divided, the street formed in August 1885 and the final block of Joseph Darragh sub‑divided in October 1885 between Edgar Street and Norman Creek over which Stanley Bridge was eventually built.

Access from that area to Woolloongabba, prior to these land sub‑divisions had been by Vulture Street East. The route to Coorparoo, as the destination sign on the horse drawn omnibuses read was “Coorparoo, via Maynard Street" (off Logan Road) until the late 1880's.

Burnett Swamp Bridge (Hanlon Park near O'Keefe Street) and the hill cutting near Logan Road (Buranda) Station had not been completed. Moreover, the building of the Cleveland Railway line which would close Maynard Street was in progress so these factors made the opening of Stanley Street East between Wellington Road and Norman Creek a timely and convenient happening.

Stanley Street has undergone many changes in surface elevation, formation, business activities and traffic importance. The area on which it was originally formed was low lying swampy ground and many sections of its length were submerged every heavy flood.

Portions between Glenelg and Ernest Streets (where a creek discharged into the river) and Tribune and Sidon Streets were raised 6 ft. and 4 ft. respectively from material excavated from the South Brisbane Dry Dock in 1876.

The building of the railway line from Ipswich towards Brisbane created a busy flow of traffic from Oxley where until the railway bridge over the river at Indooroopilly was completed, passengers were brought by coach from Oxley to Brisbane via Stanley Street.

Despite the laying of hard Bundamba, road metal, dust was a continuing nuisance, so, in 1877, the system of watering the streets usually twice daily in dry weather was introduced.

Stanley Street was one which, owing to its heavy traffic, created the dual problem of accumulating dust in dry weather and seas of mud after heavy rain. At each intersection granite blocks were laid into the street to form a stone crossing 6 ft. wide to enable pedestrians to cross without having their footwear mud-stained to a depth of one or two inches.

Afterwards, heavy rain horse drawn road sweepers with circular hard bristle brushes 6 ft. long and 1½ ft. in diameter diagonally placed and chain propelled from the vehicle wheels, swept the mud from the cambered street surface to the gutters. It was subsequently collected by semi‑circular iron cylinder self‑tipping carts and dumped in some low lying spot. Stanley Street had its problems alike in dry and wet weather.

It would appear that the reason of this denudation of the street surface alternatively resulting in dust and mud was caused by the action of traffic of those days. Statistics taken by the Woolloongabba Divisional Board in October 1881 in connection with a proposed railway extension between Merton Road and Annerley Road corners resulted as follows:

Horse drawn traffic passing the abovenamed spot on a Wednesday 6 a.m. to 10 p.m.‑Buggies and Carriages 93; Spring carts and Cabs 532; Drays and Wagons 312; Omnibuses and Coaches 177; Horsemen 283; Grand Total 1,397.

Without unduly labouring the statistical aspect and having regard to the number of horses and iron tyred wheels of the respective vehicles, it can be fairly calculated that the effect on the surface of Stanley Street would be daily 10,500 poundings of horses' iron shoes and iron tyres.

Stanley Street could be rightly considered one of the oldest streets in Brisbane as practically all frontages from Montague Road area to Woolloongabba Fiveways on both sides were sold between 1842 and 1856‑three years before Queensland was separated from New South Wales.

It is the longest street (3¼ miles) in Brisbane and had the dubious distinction of having the largest number of hotels‑seventeen- in its first 2¼ miles.

The hotels were named St. Helens (later St. Helens Private Hospital), Victoria Bridge (later Victoria), Palace, Brisbane Bridge (Manhattan), Royal Mail (Adelaide), King's Hotel (later Russell Family Hotel, then Atlas), Bowen (delicensed and demolished), Plough Inn, Ship Inn, Farmers Arms (Gloucester), Stanley (later Yorke), Clarence (later Newtown), Duke of Cornwall (later Britannia, then Hotel Morrison), Railway, Woolloongabba, Australian National, and East Brisbane (later Stanley).

The incidence of so many hotels was due to the railway traffic from the South Coast (Southport) and Cleveland lines, the busy shipping and waterside activities and a compact local population in the area.

The volume of traffic in Stanley Street doubled from the year 1883 to 1888. It was a busy shopping thoroughfare before 1892 particularly from Victoria Bridge to Vulture Street with well appointed shops of drapers, grocers, ironmongers, banks, offices and light industries.

However, it is a truism that everything fades. Time creates the need and the need brings the change. One of the needs was to bring the railway traffic nearer to the centre of the city (particularly so after the completion of the Cleveland line in 1889). The extensions to Melbourne Street of the lines from Buranda, and Dutton Park were completed and used from 21 December 1891. Several other retarding factors followed, such as the ravages of the 1893 flood, the diversion of one‑way traffic to Grey Street in 1917, the transfer in 1938 to Newstead of overseas shipping activities due to the need for speedier arrivals and departures in the tidal river of Brisbane, the opening of the Story Bridge in 1940 and a consequently large diversion of traffic.

The Captain Cook Bridge from the Domain to Vulture Street, the Riverside Freeway through to northern and western suburbs, the corresponding South east Freeway to southern suburbs, the trans-river railway bridge linking South Brisbane and Roma Street including the interstate rail line, have all played their part in the shifting demography of Stanley Street. Conversely the redevelopment of Southbank has required feeder roads, of which Stanley Street continues to play an important role. The proliferation of the automobile has pummeled the old street into submission, notwithstanding the gentrification of its shops.

 So much then for the story of the old‑time sloppy, slushy Stanley Street and the recollections of its distressingly dusty days. Its present first class condition of level bitumen on a dustless street without camber on modern foundations and without stagnant gutters, has been maintained in such condition for well over a half  a century. It is now flown over by a freeway, channeled and fed by exit and ingress lanes, tunneled into bus lanes, contrasts to the age of the buildings remaining along its route. Tribute is due to modern road building methods and it prompts the thought that the sometimes much vaunted “good old days” did not always have good old roads.

THE WOOLLOONGABBA RAILWAY LINE

The development of railways in Queensland was instituted by the Government four years after the granting of Separation.

Construction began on the new line from Ipswich to Grandchester (Bigge's Camp) on 25 February 1864 and it was opened on 31 July 1865 as the first 21 miles of the Southern and Western Railway.

Extensions to Toowoomba, Warwick and Dalby in south eastern Queensland, as well as other lines in central and north Queensland, had been completed prior to 1875‑ten years after the first railway from Ipswich had been built.

The line from Ipswich to Brisbane terminated at Oxley Point in February 1875 and the trains ran from Brisbane (Roma Street) to the spot opposite Oxley Point from 14 June 1875. Passengers and goods were conveyed across the river by punt until the Albert Railway Bridge over the Brisbane River was completed and uninterrupted communication to Roma Street began in July 1876.

During the period in which the railways in southeast Queensland were built, active development of agricultural, pastoral and wool production extended in the area from the Brisbane coastal settlement to the Darling Downs. Coal mining in West Moreton district had likewise shown a steady growth. Notwithstanding the benefits of the newly built railways, there remained the disadvantage, that in the Brisbane area, no railway had been constructed to give access to deep navigable water either on the river or the bay for the growing export trade of these products.

Many proposals for the route of a railway to provide this facility were submitted, and one may hazard the guess that few railways of less than ten miles length, as this one was estimated would be, have had so many and so varied plans for so short a distance.

Details which were placed before the investigating railway commission were:

(a)                          To build the line from Toowong Station along Coronation Drive to North Quay under Victoria Bridge to Queen's Wharf near Margaret Street where coal shoots would be built. This proposal was com­paratively inexpensive and the opinion was held that as the prevailing breezes were from the north east, the coal dust would be blown into the river.

(b)                          A line to the same area but commencing near the Police Barracks, Petrie Terrace to be built down Skew Street with the cutting in that street arched over or a tunnel 110 yards long.

(c)                           A tramway for coal wagons from Roma Street Station along to Albert Street to a central coal storage ­depot in the area between the old Market Reserve Market Street and the Port Office (Lower Edward Street).

(d)                         Extension to Bulimba from Roma Street with a high level line for coal shoots. (The railway then terminated at Roma Street but until 1889, there was no line between Roma Street and Mayne Junction except by the Normanby Victoria Park line as part of the Sandgate line).

(e)                           Further extension from the Port Office area to Creek Street and via the Customs House to Kennedy Wharf, Petries Bight (involving a tunnel 220 yards in length).

(f)                            From Queen's Wharf area through the Botanic Gardens to the Port Office area (involving a tunnel of 176 yards near Parliament House);

(g)                          Oxley (district) to Lower River Terrace via Woolloongabba and eventually an extension between Stanley Street and the river frontage to Victoria Bridge.

The Queen's Wharf was inexpensive but only a limited area was available. Albert Street to the Port Office area and with further extensions to the wharves near the Customs House was conducive to railway passenger facilities through the city but was very expensive. Bulimba was about 3½ miles further haulage for the thousands of tons of export coal. Moreover, Bulimba in 1878 was outside the town boundary and it was considered desirable to have the shipping and wharfage in the town area. Another objection to Bulimba was that sailing ships, after discharging at town wharves and before being moved to Bulimba would have to be “stiffened", i.e. load ballast (rock) to provide stability against capsizing, due to empty holds and the heavy top weight of lofty masts and long yard arms. Ballast cost 4/‑ per ton and the many disadvantages set out above militated against Bulimba, at that time, being used as an export coal wharf.

Advantages of the resulting Woolloongabba Railway, or as it was originally termed, the Southern and Western Railway, (South Brisbane Branch) from Oxley district to Stanley Street near the Dry Dock and Victoria Bridge .were that the terminus at Lower River Terrace had a large water frontage of over 900 feet without any excavation being required, still in the hands of the Government as a reserve.

Between Woolloongabba Water Reserve (Main Street to Merton Road) and Lower River Terrace, no land resumptions were necessary. The Woolloongabba Water Reserve had outlived its original purpose as other sources of water were available. Space for a lengthy line of wharfage sites and a railway line serving these would be available to eventually link up with the projected wharf 350 ft. (built in 1885) by Gibbs Bright near Bright Street and the Kangaroo Point Hotel (now Story Bridge Hotel). The fact that the Woolloongabba Railway would also form (as it later did) part of the line to the seaside suburbs of Wynnum, Manly and Cleveland all tended to influence the decision to build the line in its present position. It was also considered that this survey plan would provide a valuable line for suburban passenger traffic to the adjacent suburbs.

However, the actual Oxley district to Woolloongabba line was still the subject of varied opinions and proposals. One survey followed the south bank of the Brisbane River and skirted the Four Mile Swamp (Oxley Creek district) and then kept to the elevated ground near the site of the Yeronga Fire Station and remaining on the left side of the road above flood level until Boggo (Annerley) Road was reached. This road was crossed before reaching the Clarence corner of Annerley Road and Stanley Street, and then continued along to the foot of Vulture Street hill where it again crossed the road to Lower River Terrace.

Another survey plan proposed that the line be run along Ipswich Road (from Balaclava Street) towards Park Road. The extension of the line from Merton Road (Hotel Morrison corner) was proposed to be built on Stanley Street from that spot to the Clarence corner and to continue the line also on Stanley Street to Vulture Street and to Lower River Terrace, Stanley Street, at that time, in the portion between Merton Road and the Clarence corner was only 66 feet wide and this proposal prompted the Woolloongabba Divisional Board to vigorously protest to the Minister for Railways against the scheme. Statistics were available to show that the volume of traffic was 1,397 horse drawn vehicles daily from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. The real point at issue was building the tunnel under Vulture Street at a cost of £6,000 to give access to Lower River Terrace and deep navigable water. The tunnel, the heaviest work on the line, was cut through to Lower River Terrace. The resulting circular approach to Woolloongabba across Ipswich and Logan Roads, Stanley and Main Streets was to avoid tunnelling through the elevated ground on the west side of this line. The general opinion was that the line should not have been built through the populous part of Woolloongabba. Three sets of gates a few chains apart would be necessary and those on Ipswich Road were 20 feet wide. Traffic delays were foreseen in the long ago days of 1882 and the definite realisation of those apprehensions were long fulfilled until the final demise of the Woolloongabba Railway Yards.

Gilliver and Wockner were the successful tenderers for the 6 miles 30 chains railway and their tender of £23,510 was the lowest of seven submitted. However, the firm became financially embarrassed and the work stopped until the building of the line was resumed by the Government under the supervision of Thornloe Smith with 100 men. The problems of obtaining ballast for the rails and suitable timber for fencing caused some delay in construction.

The line was put into use without any formal opening ceremony on 2 June 1884 and three mixed trains ran daily as the original timetable shows hereunder:

Station

Departure Times from Stanley Street

Stanley Street (near South Brisbane Dock)

5.35am

11.30am

5.40pm

Woolloongabba (Railway Yards)

5.41am

11.36am

5.46pm

Fairfield

5.51am

11.46am

5.56pm

Yeronga

5.56am

11.51am

6.1pm

Logan Junction (Yeerongpilly)

6.1am

11.56am

6.8pm

South Brisbane Junction (Corinda)

6.10am

12.5pm

6.15pm

 

Trains in return from South Brisbane Junction (Corinda) arrived at Stanley Street at 8.40 a.m. 1.45 p.m. and 7.45 p.m. respectively. The speed between Stanley Street and 1 mile 40 chains (near the present Dutton Park Station) was not to exceed 10 miles per hour, which was to be reduced to 6 miles per hour when passing over level crossings. When approaching and passing over level crossings the engine bell was to be sounded.

After the 1893 flood a considerable deviation was necessary to remove the line in the area of Fairfield Station where it was only 7 feet above high water mark, and of course, very subject to inundation. Two curves each of ten chains were taken out of the line, grades were reduced and duplication was built between Boggo Junction (Dutton Park) and Yeerongpilly. An area of 22 acres was resumed for the deviation of 2¼ miles, a new Fairfield Station was built. The cost of the deviation was at the rate of £12,488 per mile the remains of the old railway line earthworks were visible for over a century.

An extension of the Woolloongabba line from Stanley Street (South Brisbane Dock area) to Victoria Bridge for the carrying of cargo to and from ships, was opened on 30 March 1897. Four different schemes were submitted for linking up this extension of ¾ mile with the terminus at the South Brisbane Dry Dock area The line was continued round the head of the dock.

The export of coal during the first ten years after the opening of the line (viz. 1884 to 1893 inclusive) totalled 1,146,982 tons and it continued to serve the export coal trade and the bunkering of ships. Since the gradual change over the past forty years from coal burning vessels to those oil-fired then motor and turbine driven, a diminishing quantity of coal has been exported.

SOME BRISBANE STREETS

        The streets and roads of Brisbane reveal a wide range of origin. They stem from British Royalty, British Statesmen, Mayors, Divisional Board Councillors, Aldermen, names of sailing vessels which brought the early newcomers to the Colony, some places of cherished memory in their home country and a wide variety of series from which a choice is made. The names of the original owners of blocks of land sold at early Government land sales, varying from five to one hundred acres, are widely represented in the pattern of street naming.

LONGLAND STREET

Longland Street, in North Fortitude Valley, was originally named Victoria Street but the name was changed to Longland Street in 1887. This street runs from Ann Street to Wyandra Street.

Longland Street, in the suburb of Stafford runs from Stafford Road towards Sparkes Hill Reservoir.

Longland Street, East Brisbane, runs from Vulture Street East to Deshon Street, Woolloongabba. From the year 1881 until 1886 this street was called Longland Street but from 1887, probably due to careless articulation the name has been shown and pronounced as Longlands Street.

STRATTON STREET

Stratton Street, North Fortitude Valley runs from Commercial Road to Longland Street, North Fortitude Valley.

It takes the name of “Stratton" the large house with a substantial brick plastered wall at the corner of Commercial Road and Doggett Street. This house was built by D. F. Longland, and was his residence for several years.

David Ferdinando Longland arrived in Brisbane by the sailing ship Chaseley of 515 tons on 1 May 1849.

He was appointed in 1857, Foreman of Works under the New South Wales Government and continued to hold various appointments with the Queensland Government after Separation from that Colony (1859) until his retirement in 1879. At that time he occupied the position of Chief Inspector of Roads and Bridges for the Southern Division of Queensland.

In the year 1879 the Queensland Government created seventy five Divisional Boards (Municipal Local Authorities) to function throughout the Colony.

Two of Longland's best remembered works, at that time, were the Breakfast Creek Bridge built under his supervision near the mouth of Breakfast Creek. This bridge of iron bark timber was opened for traffic on 21 August 1858 and remained in use until the early part of 1887. Another large job he supervised was the original Bowen Bridge over Breakfast Creek at the site of Lutwyche Road. The construction of these two bridges were in those early times regarded as considerable undertakings.

David F. Longland took an active interest in the Divisional Board system and was a member of the first Booroodabin Divisional Board the offices of which were situated on the site where the Valley Police Station later stood.

He passed away at the age of 71 on 12 September 1896 at his residence “Stratton" which gave the name to the small suburb having Commercial Road as its centre between Fortitude Valley, Teneriffe and Newstead.

He owned a total of 365 acres of land in what is nowadays the suburban area of Brisbane, viz:

Three blocks of land totalling 129 acres in the Everton Park‑Stafford suburbs (Longland Street, Stafford).

One block 4.4 acres Grange suburb. This area is bounded by the Grange Road to Kedron Brook, Day's Road, Wilston Road and the following roads or streets (or parts of same) are included in the original portion of land-Blandford, Bruce, Raymont, Chermside, Newton, Stevenson, Evelyn.

One block 160 acres, Bulimba suburb bounded by Thynne Road, Lytton Road, Wynnum Road and Beverley Street running on the eastern, side. The area in the north western corner contains the site of the Balmoral State High School and the surrounding grounds. In the remainder of the land area, the following streets and roads (or parts thereof) are situated: Barwon, Beelarong, York, Algoori, Florida, Skirving, Elaroo, Baringa, David, Coates, Deviney, Olive, Worden, Kates, Gibson, Burrai, Agnes, Rogoona.

One block 311 acres, East Brisbane, bounded by Vulture Street East, Longlands Street to Lerna Street and Withington. Street, Norman Street and part of Stanley Street East, are also included in this area. The original southern boundary of this land was Kingfisher Creek a small tributary which meandered from the corner of Logan and Wellington Roads for three quarters of a mile and joined Norman Creek at the foot of Withington Street. Kingfisher Creek was filled in several decades ago and Lerna Street was formed as a connecting street to Withington, Street.

KINGFISHER STREET

Kingfisher Street was changed to Norman Street in the year 1883.

Kingfisher Lane now runs from Camberwell Street (Tristram Park) to Vulture Street East and historically perpetuates the name of Kingfisher Creek which originally formed the southern boundary of Longland's land in that area.

One block of 11 acres in the early day named suburb of Mowbraytown (East Brisbane). Longland's land, viz. 11 acres, was bounded by Elfin Street, Mowbray Terrace, Sinclair Street (East Brisbane) and Vulture Street East. The area contained Rosslyn Street, Lamond Terrace and Balmoral Terrace.

SOMERSET STREET

Somerset Street in Windsor suburb was named after Daniel Rowntree Somerset, a native of Belfast, Ireland.

He arrived in Adelaide in 1849 and on 3 September 1850 embarked at Melbourne with his wife and three children in the barque Jenny Lind of 481 tons for Singapore.

However, on 21 September 1850 the Jenny Lind was totally wrecked on Carns (or Kenns) Reef, now called Wreck Reef in the Coral Sea east of Bowen.

No lives were lost but many privations were endured and much initiative together with resourcefulness shown by the crew and passengers. Particular credit was due to the ship's carpenter in constructing a second lifeboat from the timbers of the wrecked ship when it was realised that one of the original lifeboats was unavailable due to damage and inaccessibility due to the angle at which the Jenny Lind was aground on the reef. The water supply for the stay on the reef and the projected voyage back to Brisbane was produced and stored by the ship's surgeon from a makeshift distilling apparatus. After a voyage of eight days the two lifeboats reached Brisbane on 5 November 1850 with the ship's crew of nineteen and nine passengers including D. R. Somerset, his wife and three children.

He became a partner of John Richardson in a shipping and wharfage business. This business site of 31 perches at the corner of Eagle and Queen Streets, which Richardson had purchased in July 1852 was next door to the early day Customs House building. Richardson's wharf was on the river frontage of his allotment. Somerset continued to manage the premises until Separation was granted from New South Wales in 1859, when he was appointed Chief Clerk in the newly created Queensland.

D. R. Somerset was the owner of 31 acres of land in the city and 100 acres in the now inner suburban Brisbane area set out hereunder:

Three blocks of land totalling 31 acres in Leichhardt Street. The land which frontaged Leichhardt Street, extended to the corner of Wharf Street and ran down to Herbert Street (now Astor Terrace). This land was purchased in 1854.

Five blocks of land totalling 100 acres in the suburb of Windsor (O'Connelltown) and Eildon Hill. The areas containing the various roads, streets or parts of streets now laid out on the land D. R. Somerset owned are respectively shown hereunder:

Portions of land No. 11 and 12 bounded by Lutwyche Road, Grafton Street, Breakfast Creek (part of) and a line south of Cartwright Street. This area contains Bowen, Somerset, Le Geyt, Grantson, Maurice, Charles, Albany, Gennon, Epacras Streets, also Lyons Terrace. The original “Rosemount" which was built in 1859 by D. R. Somerset was a small home, situated where the porch of the present “Rosemount" now stands. He resided here but later sold the property to Sir Maurice O'Connell. “Rosemount" was occupied by various owners and was finally handed over to the. Commonwealth Government by the late Albert Jones of the firm of Gordon & Gotch. It was used as a Military Hospital since the First World War.

Portions 145, 146 and 147 bounded by Lutwyche Road, Newmarket Road, Silvester Avenue, Sixth Avenue and Eildon Road. The streets contained in this area include Rosemount and Oakwal Terraces, Oakwal Lane, Bush, Cox, Stafford, Baird, Prospect, Kennedy, Batchelor Streets and part of Seventh Avenue. It also includes the home of the late W. V. Ralston, General Manager of the original Queensland National Bank. This home called “Monte Video" was taken over by the Salvation Army in the mid 1920's and has since been conducted as the maternity hospital "Boothville".

“Oakwal" the home of Sir James Cockle, the first Chief Justice of Queensland was built in the 1860's on Portion 146 originally owned by D. R. Somerset. Oakwal Terrace and Oakwal Lane take their names from this residence.

St. Johns Wood, Ashgrove, was once the property and residence of D. R. Somerset prior to being purchased by Judge Harding.

MAKERSTON STREET

Makerston Street, which runs from Roma Street to North Quay is incorrectly shown in its present spelling. The street name should appear as Makerstoun (or as it sometimes appears as Mackerstoun) which was Sir Thomas Brisbane's home and observatory near Kelso in the north east of Scotland.

HERSCHEL STREET

Herschell Street runs from North Quay to Roma Street. It originally ran through to Upper Albert Street but the portion from Roma Street to Albert Street was resumed when the railway line was constructed.

Herschel Street was named after Sir John F. W. Herschel a noted astronomer 1792‑1871 born at Slough England. He was considered a prodigy in science, made important discoveries in photography, received the Astronomical Society's Gold Medal. He was a close friend of Sir Thomas Brisbane who likewise was a keen astronomer and Herschel Street was named as a token of their friendship. Sir John Herschel was buried in Westminster Abbey near the grave of Sir Isaac Newton.

THE SANDGATE RAILWAY LINE

One hundred years ago, Sandgate was described as a rising village on the shores of Moreton Bay at the mouth of Cabbage Tree Creek and distant from Brisbane about 14 miles by road. The route was by way of German Station (now called Nundah) and after the bridge over Cabbage Tree Creek was completed a good road judged by the standards of those days, ran to Sandgate via Bald Hills.

The means of conveyance for mails and passengers in the early 1860's was by coach which ran every Monday. By the year 1868, the service was increased to twice a week leaving Brisbane on Mondays and Thursdays. James Ormiston in 1874 ran his coach on Wednesdays, Fridays and Sundays at 8.30 a.m. from the North Australia Hotel situated in Adelaide Street a short distance from the corner of Albert Street. The return fare was 5/‑ and the coach arrived back at 6 p.m. Other services began and included those of Cobb & Co. and Best's Line of Coaches, so that by 1876 there was a frequent daily service.

Railway development through the years after Separation was carried on in various parts of Queensland and as population grew, the building of railway lines to some of the suburbs became an active question. It is worthy of interest to record the reasons, analyse the suggestions for the proposed routes, note the objections raised and then to realise that nowadays, with the widely accepted modern road transport, the question of railway routes has thus been overshadowed. However, suburban railway lines to, the northern, southern, eastern and western suburbs still satisfactorily convey many thousands of passengers daily.

A railway line to Sandgate, thence to the Pine Rivers and Caboolture was proposed early in 1879. The reasons advanced were that it would not merely be a suburban line but the beginning of a means of rail communication to the abovementioned places north of Brisbane. It would also touch country where development could take place, provide access to the Brisbane markets for the products of the large agricultural areas of these districts. The advocates of the scheme drew attention to the development that had occurred in the western suburbs, e.g. Toowong, after railway passed through that district. Sandgate with its added cooler climatic advantages would experience even greater development. Other reasons were that the estimated revenue from traffic to and from the Racecourse (Ascot) was 22,000 annually and the revenue derived from the holiday traffic to the Exhibition grounds at Bowen Park, Brisbane, was also included in the anticipated advantages.

Five different routes were, surveyed from the then Brisbane terminal railway station (Roma Street) via Victoria Park and Bowen Park to the German Station (Nundah) where all the lines of survey converged. The proposed lines are shown hereunder with the comparative distances and estimated construction costs:

Via Albion

5miles 75 chains

£29278

Distance to Racecourse 6m 23ch

Via Sports Ground near Albion

5 miles 60 chains

30774

Distance to Racecourse 6m 38ch

Via Hamilton

6 miles 30 chains

£33267

Distance to Racecourse 4m 50ch

Via Hamilton (River side)

6 miles 38 chains

£40032

Distance to Racecourse 4m 58ch

Via London’s Hill (Albion Park)

6 miles 2 chains

£38495

Distance to Racecourse 4m 42 Chelmsford

Cost of extending train to the Racecourse £5674

A circuitous route was not desired but what was required was that the mileage fare would not exceed that charged on the road. The route via the Hamilton (river side) although several thousand pounds in excess of some of the others, could be built more cheaply as for a greater part of its length there would not, be any outlay for the resumption price of land.

The Queensland Parliament had voted the, sum of £52,000 in 1879 for the construction of a railway line to Sandgate and it was this amount which largely determined the route finally chosen. Additional suggestions and schemes were advocated and included the following:

(a)                          A route from the original Grammar School (via Albert Park) and Wickham Terrace Reserve, along the hollow in Wickham Street across Brunswick Street, Constance Street and up to Bowen Park. The cost of land resumption would have been £17,900 and a total cost of £94,137.

(b)                         Another route by the Valley, Brisbane River and Hamilton was estimated to cost £115,223.

(c)                           A route by the back of Hamilton which would have cost £35,196 beyond the limit of money authorised by Parliament.

Objections to the route proposed (via Victoria and Bowen Parks) included the opinions that Roma Street would not continue to be the terminal station for suburban traffic, that the line would be taken round the outer western part of the city instead of through it, that the large population of Fortitude Valley district estimated then between 7,000 and 8,000 would be neglected, that the opportunity of bringing the line through Petrie Bight (with a station there) and so give access to the wharves and shipping nearby were being unconsidered. Moreover, a branch line would have to be built to the Racecourse at a cost of £5,674 as the proposed Sandgate route ran as far as it could from the Racecourse.

The £115,223 scheme was considered incomparably the best of the routes by several members of Parliament but the survey engineer stated that if the line were taken by that route to, the Racecourse, it would be difficult to “get back" to German Station (Nundah) owing to the low lying swampy type of country between those two places.

An estimate of the cost of the route chosen was £66,102 which was £14,102 above the limit fixed by Parliament and included land valued at £5,467 resumed between Brisbane and German Station, while the land between the latter place and Sandgate wa s considered to be of minor value. Tenders were called in February 1881 and on 5 April 1881 it was decided by a vote of 25 to 17 to accept the tender of George Bashford of £38,634.3.5 for the construction of the Sandgate line from Roma Street, Victoria and Bowen Parks and by way of its existing, route with a branch line to Racecourse. The conditions were that the work was to be completed in 16 months from the date of commencement. However, it was expected that the work would be completed in 14 months. In July 1881 the Government instituted a bonus scheme of £800 which would accrue to the contractor on condition that the line would be completed and handed over by 1 August 1882. By this means the Treasury would obtain profits from the  line much earlier by the outlay of a comparatively small amount. George Bashford duly received his £800 as the line was virtually completed when the first trial run by train was made during the second week of April 1882, the journey taking 29 minutes. A slight delay in the actual opening date was due to the completion of the fencing and the completion of the telegraph line. However, it could be stated that the line was completed and handed over in twelve months and seven days.

The actual distance of the line to the original Sandgate terminus at Curlew Street was 12 miles 14 chains. In April 1909 the Sandgate station, which had been built by Henry Pears in 1881 was moved about a quarter of a mile nearer to Brisbane on its present location. The Racecourse branch from Eagle Junction Station of 1 mile 49 chains was opened early in September 1882 and Racecourse Station held that name until changed to Ascot in the early 1890's. This line was subsequently extended to Pinkenba and the Sandgate line to Shorncliffe.

Construction of the Sandgate line began on 3 May 1881 when the first sod was turned with due official ceremony in the Exhibition Grounds about halfway down the hill towards the Brisbane Hospital. Two hundred and twenty men commenced work on the line as well as those of sub‑contractors on the Normanby Tunnel (now superseded by a much larger and wider concrete bridge spanning several additional sets of lines) and cuttings at places on the line.

The first point of dispute was the route surveyed through the Exhibition

Grounds. This route converted 21 acres of the National Association Showground into the railway line which, as one of the critics pointed out, could have been avoided if the survey had run a few chains to the northward. The expensive cutting through 792 feet of hard rock could likewise have been obviated or minimized. However, the original plans stood and after contentious correspondence, compensation was granted to the extent of £300 to defray the costs of removing and re‑erecting the cattle sheds and yards. An area of 12 acres of the Acclimatisation Society's grounds in Bowen Park across the creek which once ran through Bowen Park towards the present wooden railway bridge was negotiated for between the National Association and that Society.

The Normanby tunnel was the major engineering work of the line. This tunnel was 264 feet long, and 24 feet below the surface of the road. A cutting measuring 660 feet long on one side (Grammar School side) and 330 feet on the Normanby Hotel side were also excavated, the total amount removed being 11,000 cubic yards chiefly by horse and dray methods. Another large job was the construction of the railway bridge 160 feet long over the Breakfast Creek near Albion. The original bridge was a wooden structure but in October 1885 the firm of J. Mason & Co. of Sydney widened and built an iron bridge in five months at a cost of £3,788. Apart from these works a comparatively simple railway construction job. Some of the features of the line were the hollowed iron sleepers laid for half a mile over the sandy soil near Nudgee Station. It was near this spot that a plentiful supply of railway ballasting metal was conveniently secured. Quantities of the iron rails were conveyed to Cabbage Tree Creek by water transport from Brisbane; the construction of the northern end of the line was thus accelerated. It was officially opened 10 May 1882.

The eight trains which began the service on 11 May 1882 left Brisbane at 7.15 a.m., 9.15 am, 11.30 am, 1.45 p.m., 3.45 pm, 5.40 pm, 7.40 pm, 11.10 pm; and left Sandgate at 8.15 a.m., 10.20 am, 12.30 p.m., 2.50 pm, 4.40 pm, 6.35 pm, 8.30 pm, 12 midnight. Original railway stations were Roma Street, Bowen Park, Bowen Hills (Tufton Street), Mayne, Albion, Lutwyche (Wooloowin), Eagle Junction, German Station (Nundah), Nudgee and Sandgate. Running time 40 minutes.

THE PROPOSED BRIDGES OF EARLY BRISBANE

The City of Brisbane, situated as it is on both banks of the meandering Brisbane River, which is the largest commercially used stream in Australia, has the advantage of having a very considerable part of its area lying within a mile's distance of the current of fresh air rising from the 1,500 feet width of its waters. However, if it be true that there is no rose without a thorn, then the question of communication by bridges across the river has been the thorn in the respective sides of governmental and municipal authorities since Brisbane was established.

A hundred years ago a leading alderman of Brisbane, who was also a business man, deprecated the building of a town bridge because the Corporation (Council) was earning a large amount of money from the North Quay to Russell Street ferry. The opinion of this alderman was superseded, of course, by the more progressive type in the Council and by the year 1864 the foundation stone of the first Victoria Bridge had been laid. Communication for vehicular and pedestrian traffic between the north and south banks of the river was by the bridge which was much narrower than the present Victoria Bridge. Ferry communication also existed at several points and vehicular and passenger ferries respectively ran from Creek Street to Kangaroo Point and from Commercial Road (Newstead) to Bulimba.

One of the phenomena of human nature appears to be the acceptance of space restrictions where persons travel aboard ships, and the greater distance to be repeatedly covered in journeys, due to the non‑existence of a bridge.

In the normal environment the ships' passengers would require a considerably

larger area in which to live. Those in a traffic stream, if impeded by streets being barricaded for a mere half mile would loudly protest, but the absence of a bridge, although a much greater distance is involved, generally is quietly accepted. Bridges of course cannot be built in profusion but the time eventually arrives when additional bridge construction is an imperative necessity.

      Such a time did come in the late 1880's. The population of Brisbane in 1880 was 30,000 and by the year 1885, due to active immigration it had increased to 50,000. Statistics officially recorded from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. on Monday 6 August 1888 regarding the vehicular traffic passing over the old Victoria Bridge resulted as follows:­

Light Vehicles, 2,467, Heavy Vehicles 930, trams and omnibuses (horse drawn) 684, saddle horses 644. Grand total 4,725.

      The old Victoria Bridge consisted of only one roadway for inbound and  outbound traffic.

      Agitation for increased bridge accommodation began to grow and became such a burning question early in 1889 that separation was threatened by the municipal wards (or divisions) of Kangaroo Point and East Brisbane (then part of the Brisbane Municipal Council) unless positive action was taken. Action was stirred in the Brisbane Municipal Council and in Parliament. Official opinion was adverse to the proposal to widen the old Victoria Bridge as the expenditure of such a large sum would not be warranted as the life of that bridge was limited. A sum of £100,000 was placed on the estimates by Parliament for the construction of a bridge across the river. The building of a bridge is a complicated question due to the requirements which include engineering facilities (the ideal being a high bank on each side of a river), the location site which will yield the best results in traffic communication, non‑disturbance of commercial interests, wharfage and shipping activities, river traffic and the overall costs of property resumptions and construction.

        Plans prepared by the Queensland Government Bridges Engineer, J. H. Daniells, in respect of three proposed sites for the new bridge and the respective estimated costs were as follows:

(a)            Bridge from Peel Street, South Brisbane to Ann Street, £60,000.

(b)                                     Bridge from Alice Street, City to Kangaroo Point (a low level swing bridge to enable ships to pass), £75,000

(c)                                      Bridge from George Street to Church Street (Amesbury Street on the northern side of St. Mary's Church of England) a high level bridge, £190,000.

It is of interest to record that in the year 1884 a syndicate proposed to construct a high level bridge over the river with a 100 feet clearance to enable sailing ships to pass, from near the residence of Robert Wilson at Teneriffe suburb to the correspondingly high position at Hawthorne, Brisbane. However, after some preliminary preparation the plan did not materialise.

The details, merits and demerits of the above mentioned three bridges are set out hereunder:

Peel Street to Ann Street Bridge which was the least expensive to construct was favoured by the South Brisbane Council because it would relieve, some of the congestion at the end of the old Victoria Bridge. The Queensland Government also approved of it as a double bridge for vehicles and trains in view of the projected extension of the South Coast and Cleveland Railway lines to, Melbourne Street (which did occur in 1891) and the eventual extension of this railway to link up with the northern suburbs line between Roma Street and Central Station. The proposed bridge would not have caused any obstruction to shipping below Victoria Bridge. However a wider view was taken by the then Mayor of Brisbane who regarded the Peel Street bridge as having little or any effect on the traffic on the old Victoria Bridge. Moreover, the residents of Kangaroo Point, East Brisbane, East Woolloongabba, Coorparoo, Belmont and the Logan Road districts would gain no advantage from this proposal.

Alice Street to Kangaroo Point. The plan provided for a low level swing bridge opposite Edward Street with a span 150 feet wide to enable ships to pass. In those times, the average shipping traffic was three or four vessels per week. The estimated cost was £75,000 and the proposal had several supporters. It would have saved a detour to the Kangaroo Point, East Brisbane, Bulimba suburbs of about three miles, and relieved traffic in Stanley Street South Brisbane. The population in these suburbs had increased 45% in two years and the ferry dues amounted to £10,000 annually.

However, the objections were that the approaches to the proposed bridge would have had to be taken back in Alice Street to the Albert Street entrance to the Botanical Gardens. Heavy compensation would be due to shipping companies nearby owing to resumptions of their properties, and the unmanoeuvreability of their vessels. The bridge would encroach on the Botanical Gardens, and if that objection were removed by carrying the work on the bridge to Albert Street, it would result in a very ugly engineering job as compared with the Edward Street proposal.

Central Bridge. This high level bridge from George Street near Parliament House to Church Street (now Amesbury Street) Kangaroo Point on the northern side of St. Mary's Church of England was estimated to cost £190,000. The committee advocating bridge connection with Kangaroo Point and adjacent suburbs favoured this site. Its advantages were claimed as non‑interference with shipping, serving all the adjacent districts with quick access to and departure from the city and a big relief to Stanley Street traffic.

Two plans were submitted, one from J. Phillips and the other from the then City Engineer. The Phillips' plan was to cut off a piece of the Botanical Gardens in a line with the Queensland Club for the approach to the proposed bridge. As this plan took so much from the Botanical Gardens it was considered impracticable. The City Engineer's plan commenced with a road in the Gardens from Albert Street to the bridge and to carry it to Church Street (Amesbury Street) Kangaroo Point. This plan was designed to go through the trees in the Gardens, the sports ground in Queens Park would not be affected and the route caused a minimum of interference; and there were no resumption costs.

The question of cost arose and the opponents laboured the point at issue. It was calculated that it would cost £100 per foot to build the bridge. Brisbane's population at that time was 100,000. Additional objections were that the grade would rise from the north (or Gardens side) unless the hill near St. Mary's Church was cut down.

Changes had been occurring in the Brisbane City Council's attitude towards the Peel Street bridge and the motion passed by a former Council was rescinded. Opinions had swung to favour the Central Bridge at Kangaroo Point. Counter deputationists had been quietly organising what proved to be the final answer to the additional bridge question. The then Premier stated that no obstruction would be permitted below the terminal port of South Brisbane, no government would despoil the Botanical Gardens and the port authorities would object to the proposed Central Bridge as it would be on the curve of the river. He also pointed out that a constant stream of traffic would pass Parliament House and the Brisbane River was a vast national property.

Within a few days of this decision, tenders were called for the construction of a wharf 264 feet long and 41 feet wide immediately adjacent to Victoria Bridge. At the southern most end of this wharf opposite the Atlas Hotel lay berthed that famous British sailing ship Cutty Sark during November and December 1894 in which period she loaded a record cargo for a sailing ship, of 3,100 bales of wool.

Many moons, waxed and waned, many tides flowed in the Brisbane River until the next additional bridge was built at Grey Street forty years later.

Today the Phillips plan has come near to fruition as the South East Freeway and Captain Cook Bridge skirts the Botanical Gardens Domain end of town before joining the Riverside Expressway built over the northern bank of the Brisbane River whilst a pedestrian walkway links the Domain site with Southbank.

Unfamiliar Names of Brisbane Suburbs

A town can be considered as growing in a satisfactory way when suburbs begin to surround the original area of its establishment. In the one hundred and sixty years since the opening of Brisbane to free settlement, its growth has been steadily and continuously progressive. The evidence of development is found in the fact that, nowadays, there are over two hundred suburbs in the 375 square miles of the municipal area of Brisbane and a population of over 1,000,000.

After the first sale in July 1842 of Queen Street allotments, further Crown lands were sold in that area as the town developed. Population increased and suburbs began to appear. The early colonists were, of course, people of varied occupations, temperaments and ideas, but a good proportion possessed the ambition to improve their conditions and so prosper in the new land. Many were men of substance and courageous enough to invest their means. However, the range for investment was not extensive in the young and undeveloped country which had practically no industries other than those of agricultural, pastoral, mining and general business activities.

The acquisition of land either in town allotments or in the larger blocks ranging from areas up to ten acres in the inner suburbs to those of varying acreages up to one hundred in the outer suburbs, therefore caught the, spirit of many early residents. In many cases the area of land was used for their homes, for small farms, for dairies, but as Brisbane developed, the space for residential sites was a growing necessity, and Brisbane continued, to expand in an ever‑increasing circle. After the land of the property owner was subdivided into a varying number of residential allotments, the name of the estate was chosen and duly advertised for sale by auction. All advantages of the land were listed and in some cases, a champagne luncheon‑half an hour prior to the auction time, evidently to soften buying resistance, was provided. However, other auctioneers, equally astute, advertised there would be no champagne as the land was so good it was not needed.

The names of some estates, streets and suburbs are so closely interwoven that the three subjects form an integral part of the story. Many owners, imbued with ambitious visions, gave fanciful names to their estates which often lay only two or three miles in a straight line from the General Post Office. Some were called a village, a township or a town, probably due to the thinking in those far off days of the 1860's that their properties would form into, and remain, as, a separate community. It is always difficult to think one hundred years hence.

Many names of the various estates merely lasted during the period of advertising prior to the auction sale of the land. In other cases the name of the estate became the name of the suburb but usually with the elimination of the word “estate". It is worthy of note that although several hundred estates in the Brisbane area have been sold in the past one hundred years and houses built thereon, the suburb of Thompson Estate is the only one to retain and use its original full name. However, to some extent, the newer suburbs of Annerley (1905) and Buranda (1913) have infringed on the original area.

In accordance with the inevitable factors of time and change, the deletions of the original names of many suburbs are due to a variety of causes among which are the absence of some definite display of the name in a public vehicle, post office, school, railway station and the absorption of the smaller suburb into that of a larger one and the consequent overshadowing of its name. Public vehicles, as horse drawn omnibuses and electric trams, both carried side destination boards indicating often six or more suburbs through which their route followed. Nowadays the destination suburb only appears.

Originally an estate area was closely defined by the land to be sold, but in the course of time, on infrequent maps often for the sake of clear lettering and the desire not to obliterate street names appearing thereon, the name of the estate was placed much beyond the original position of the estate or suburb.

MOUNT PLEASANT:

The Mount Pleasant Estate consisted of Portion 170 which was 34 acres originally purchased by W. Smith on 25th May, 1865. Subdivision of this estate into 134 allotments did not take place until 21st December 1877, and the first sale of these was on 31st December, 1878.

This estate was bounded by Donaldson Street (originally West Street), Logan Road, Plimsoll Street, Bundaree Street (Russell Street). Other streets in the estate were Lottie, Susan and Tiny, while Plimsoll Street formed the eastern frontage. As previously stated, the subdivision of this estate was being carried out during the year 1877 during which time Samuel Plimsoll, the originator of the widely known Plimsoll Line marked on ships' hulls was the centre of much publicity in connection with the passing of the Merchant Shipping Act.

Logan Road‑Mount Pleasant was the destination sign on the Omnibuses which for many years served this suburb. The Crown Stove Works were situated on the site of the omnibus stables at the corner of Logan Road and Plimsoll Street.

The name of Mount Pleasant was evidently popular as three other estates were similarly named, e.g. Mount Pleasant (Petrie Terrace 1865), Mt. Pleasant Estate (Toorak Hill 1877) and Mount Pleasant Estate, (Rocklea 1884). However, the names were temporarily applied but the Mount Pleasant on Logan Road continued for over half a century before its gradual decline of publicity and its absorption by Greenslopes suburb.

DUNELLAN ESTATE

Dunellan Estate comprised 56 acres originally purchased by Robert Wright prior to Separation from the New South Wales Government. John Buhot, the well known pioneer of sugar manufacture in Queensland, became the owner on 9th  March 1874. Dunellan Estate consisted of the area bounded by Juliette Street, Logan Road up to near the corner of Ridge Street, Dunellan Street (midway to Ridge Street) and down to Pine Street. The land was subsequently subdivided into 409 allotments. John Buhot's residence, built on the highest part of the estate became a private school.

On 30th July 1890, this school was taken over by the Queensland Education Department and named the Mount Pleasant Provisional School. It later became the Dunellan State School and continued under that name in Buhot's original home until the building was demolished in 1923 and the present school, when erected, was given the euphonious but geographically incorrect name of Greenslopes State School (although situated in the suburb of Dunellan).

The actual area of the land termed Greenslopes, consisted of 46 acres purchased by an early pioneer Frederick Wecker. It was bounded by Old Cleveland Road, Pembroke Road, Upper Cornwall Street and Kirkland Avenue (originally Wecker Street). The area was subsequently subdivided into 83 allotments. Greenslopes was an appropriate name given to the pleasantly situated half‑mile stretch of treeless green land sloping gently from Cornwall Street to Old Cleveland Road.

At the turn of the century, sheep from the stock sales could be seen grazing prior to delivery to the Pastoral Butchering Company at Holland Park. After the withdrawal of the two lines of Dunellan horse drawn buses and the extension in 1914 of the electric tram to the corner of Chatsworth Road and Cornwall Street, which correctly carried the destination sign of Greenslopes, the name of Dunellan has declined to diminished conspicuousness.

MAIDA HILL

Maida Hill Estate was part of Portion 193 originally purchased by J. and A. Adsett. It was situated on the eastern side of Wooloowin Railway Station. The estate consisted of 30 acres bounded by Stopford Terrace (Hill Street), Bonney Avenue (Old Sandgate Road), Lisson Grove, Wooloowin Avenue (Lutwyche Street). Thoroughfares included in this area were Balmain Street, Victoria Parade, Wildman Street and that part of Belle Vue Terrace up to Bonney Avenue.

Maida Hill was one of the names proposed for the present Wooloowin Station which was built in 1890 as a centrally situated station after the closures of the Lutwyche Railway Station (opposite Chalk Street) and the Thorroldtown Railway Station (about 500 yards north of Wooloowin Station).

In the year 1898 the settlement of Maida Hill in the Parish of Maida Hill, County of Aubigny and situated 24 Miles from Dalby was required by the Queensland Postal Authorities to change the name of the settlement of Maida Hill to that of Bell. Confusion had arisen in the delivery of mails with the suburb similarly named Maida Hill in Brisbane. However, in the course of a few years the action was fruitless as with the extension of the electric tram to Clayfield in 1901 and the removal of the Maida Hill Presbyterian Church from the corner of Lisson Grove and Balmain Street to Belle Vue Terrace, Clayfield, little remained to perpetuate the name of the Brisbane suburb of Maida Hill.

GROVE ESTATE

Grove Estate was the Portion 647 consisting of 53 acres originally purchased by T. W. Donaldson on 13th September 1867. It was not subdivided into allotments until 16th September 1884. This estate was an extensive one and 513 allotments were offered at auction sales which began on 4th October 1884. Grove Estate was bounded originally by Waterworks Road, Woodlands Street, Stewarts Road, and McLean Parade (Musgrave Parade). Transport to the area was by the Grove Estate omnibus but the name has been superseded by the relatively smaller Ashgrove Estate which was of 149 allotments.

SORREL HILL

Sorrell Hill was bounded by Sorrel Street, Kennedy Terrace, Woodcock Street (Hill Street) and Rockbourne Terrace. Armstrong Terrace runs through the centre of the estate. Sorrel Hill consisted of land portions respectively numbered 611, 612, 613, 614 totalling 17 acres purchased by T. Armstrong on 24th April 1868. Subdivision into 131 allotments of 16 perches each was completed on 27th August 1888. Early day transport was by the omnibus bearing the sign “Jubilee Estate, Sorrel Hill". Sorrel Hill is surrounded nowadays by the widely known suburbs of Jubilee, Ithaca, Paddington and Red Hill. Sorrel Hill shares the fate of many other discarded names.

BRIMETOWN

Brimetown was the area Portion 38 consisting of 100 allotments bounded by Montague Road, Victoria Street and Kurilpa Street. The land auction was held on 8th January 1866. James Gibbon was the original owner of this property which was 2 miles from the G.P.O.

THE GENERAL CEMETERY AT TOOWONG

I like that ancient saxon phrase which calls

The burial ground God's‑acre! It is just;

It consecrates each grave within its walls

 

And breathes a benison o'er the sleeping dust.

Longfellow 1807‑1882.

 

When Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote the above, as the opening verse of his poem “God's‑Acre", he aptly described what a cemetery literally is, a sleeping place. This poem was typical of the times in which he had lived, but, as in most things in life, the effects of changed conditions have rendered the churchyard (God's Acre) partly outmoded. Churchyards nowadays exist only in small settlements or distant suburbs in this State.

It has been the duty of Christian communities to have burial places consecrated and set apart, one of the reasons being that the remains of the dead should be respected and protected from indignity. The first reference in biblical times to burying places is found in the Book of Genesis 49 verses 29 to 32, regarding Abraham's purchase of one (a cave) from the children of Heth.

In Brisbane the first area of sufficient size to be termed a cemetery was still

situated in 1840 in a portion of land bounded by Eagle Terrace, Skew Street,

Saul Street and Upper Roma Street, on the outskirts of the then small town.

Prior to the opening of Brisbane as a free settlement after the departure of the

convicts, a survey plan for the proposed larger town, due to be established, had been

prepared by Henry Wade early in 1842. The situation of an area for a cemetery

of 60 acres and the position of some of the original town allotments appeared

on this plan.                              

               This new cemetery, which actually comprised seven small cemeteries, allotted to the respective religious denominations, became known by the combined name of Milton‑Paddington Cemetery and was between Milton Road, Hale Street (formerly Cemetery Street), Sweetman Street, Dowse Street and Castlemaine Street.

        After the opening of free settlement in 1842 the population of Brisbane rapidly increased and the aggregate number of interments in the Milton‑Paddington Cemetery from the time it came into use in the mid‑year of 1844 had grown to such an extent that in the early 1850's it became apparent that action would have to be taken for a larger cemetery. A petition was forwarded in 1853 to the Government of New South Wales (of which the area now termed Queensland was then a portion), requesting that a new general cemetery be granted. In reply, the New South Wales Government stated that land had already been allotted to the different denominations, i.e. the Milton‑Paddington Cemetery.

        At the end of the year 1862, by which time, of course, Separation had been granted three years previously, the Brisbane Municipal Council requested the Queensland Government to grant an area of land for a new and larger general cemetery beyond that at Milton‑Paddington.

        The Public Health Bill (Cemetery Act) of 1865 under which a cemetery could be closed by proclamation was enacted. It gave a Governor power to close a cemetery when it became an inconvenience to any adjoining population. Although the Milton‑Paddington Cemetery was to be thus closed at the end of 1865 (except the Church of England portion) the Government found it necessary to extend this closing date until the end of 1866. This extension was due to a fear that suitable ground might not be secured and prepared for interments in the specified time. Many years, however, passed before positive action was taken to close this old cemetery.

        A portion of Crown land had been selected as a site for a new cemetery near the base of One Tree Hill (Mount Coot‑tha) about 41 miles by road from the centre of Brisbane. The survey of this area (then known as West Milton) as a proposed cemetery reserve was completed by H. C. Rawnsley on 6th June 1866 and consisted of 203 acres. A further survey after an adjustment of boundaries was finalised by M. E. L. Burrowes on 18th October 1870 and increased the size of the proposed cemetery to 257 acres. Heussler Terrace, part of which is now called Birdwood Terrace since 1920 formed the northern boundary and Wool Street was the original southern boundary.

        Trustees were appointed immediately after the survey by M. E. L. Burrowes had been completed and they began a search for a suitable site for interments in the new cemetery reserve. Finally in October 1871 an area of forty acres on the eastern side was selected from the larger area for the first interments. However, the opportunity for the change of a burial site to the new general cemetery at Toowong was not readily taken advantage of by the Government, neither did the relatives of deceased persons swerve from their preference for burials to be continued in the old cemetery, for the various reasons set out in a subsequent paragraph.

        The story of the old cemetery, from the proposed closing date 1865 until the gazetted date of the opening of the Toowong Cemetery 5 July 1875 was a sorry one. Over‑crowding of graves, neglected headstones, the situation of many graves

in the hollows of the cemetery, as well as those immediately adjacent to a closely populated area, all tended to firmly base the claim by various local petitioners on several occasions for the definite closure of the cemetery and the removal of the unpleasant scene. The burials continued there and evidence of the tardiness to divert these to Toowong was found in the fact that 163 persons were laid to rest in the Church of England portion of the Milton‑Paddington Cemetery in the year 1872‑seven years after the date of the first proposed closure.

Still, the Government for several reasons did not press very strongly on the general public to use Toowong Cemetery. The problem was one of compelling necessity on the one hand and frustration on the other, due to several factors not nowadays apparent, but which, in the years 1866 to 1875, were vividly realistic to those concerned with the responsibility of interment. Summarised hereunder are the main reasons which operated against the early use of Toowong Cemetery:

 

(a)                        The situation of the area for the new general cemetery for Brisbane should have been on the line of railway, the quaint term used in those days.

(b)                       No public transport for the then lengthy journey of 41 miles, other than by horse‑drawn hearse, mourning coach or hired cab (waggonette) was available. The railway through Toowong was not opened for traffic until 14 June 1875 but then with only a daily service of four trains which ran after that date.

(c)                         The resulting costs of funerals were more expensive than if the body for interment had been conveyed by train (as had been the case in New South Wales for many years). A modestly arranged funeral to Toowong, if it consisted of a hearse and one mourning coach cost £10 which, expressed in relative modern currency would approximate £100 (or one third more than present day charges). This proved a financial hardship to persons with slender incomes.

(d)                       To reach Toowong, in those days, by Riverview Road, later River Road (now Coronation Drive) was a long and tiring journey on a dusty road through the bush and occupied much more time than to Milton‑ Paddington cemetery.

(e)                        The unsuitability in those times of parts of Toowong Cemetery for burials due to the low‑lying position subject to submergence in wet weather.

It was apparent that the Government's unhurriedness to rigorously: compel burials to take place at Toowong was due to the foregoing difficulties. Illustrative of this fact was that from October 1871 when the site within the cemetery for burials was selected by the Trustees, until the notification in a newspaper advertisement by the Chairman Alderman John Petrie, then Mayor of Brisbane, that the Brisbane General Cemetery at Toowong was open for burials on and for 5/7/1875, only six persons had been buried in the cemetery as shown hereunder:

3 January 1871

Colonel S. W. Blackall

3 November 1871

Ann Hill

1872

No Burials

19 November 1873

Thos K. McCullock

19 November 1873

Martha McCullock

1874

No burials

16 March 1875

Teresa M. Love

4 July 1875

Florence C. Gordon

4 July 1875

Ethel M. Gordon

8 July 1875

Jas. T. Jackson

An explanation is necessary regarding the grave of Colonel S. W. Blackall (then Queensland's second Governor in office) was personally selected by him on a high spur now called Mount Blackall within the cemetery. His action was prompted by a grim anticipation due to the knowledge that he was suffering from an incurable disease and that his passing from life was soon approaching.

The Government's decision to close, at long last, the Milton‑Paddington Cemetery and open Toowong Cemetery was, no doubt, due to the availability of the railway which had been opened three weeks prior to the issue of the Supplementary Government Gazette. This directed that the opening date would be on 5 July1875 and allowed until 1 August 1875 as the final date for burial in the old cemetery. A total of 4,600 interments had been made there and the majority of those were of residents associated with the earliest days of Brisbane. A comparison of figures shows that from July 1875 to early in 1963, a, total of 106,000 persons now sleep eternally in Toowong Cemetery.

The layout of the cemetery was designed by George Phillips, a prominent civil engineer of those days and the work of clearing unwanted trees, was carried out by a number of men who had been previously unemployed. In 1883 the road to One Tree Hill‑ Mount Coot‑tha) was formed. An office for the transaction of arrangements for burials was opened in Queen Street near Edward Street after the opening date, as the distance to Toowong was of some inconvenience.

BRISBANE STREET NAMES

A street, apart from being a means of proceeding to the premises, which line its two sides, also provides a medium by which this miniature strip of territory can form a convenient, inexpensive and continuously effective remembrance to a respected citizen, an early landholder or to some topical event which occurred at the time the street in the estate first took shape. In the course of time, street name signs are observed, consciously or sub‑consciously, by possibly indeterminable myriads of passers‑by, but to those of a questioning mind, there lies a partly unknown story of the personality or the event with which the name in associated. Moreover, the continuous use of the street name whether in a telephone directory, on electoral roll, commercial or legal documents, or on addressed envelopes, the emerged fact tends to accentuate the widespread dissemination of the name that appears on a mere sign post in a street. The names of Brisbane streets come from diversified sources, but those bearing reference mainly to some early day identities are listed herein.

SARGENT ROAD and TURNER AVENUE

(Suburb of Merthyr) both run from Oxlade Drive to Sydney Street and Mountford Road respectively through the original Kinellan Estate. These thoroughfares were named after Hon. John Sargent Turner M.L.C. who was a son of Rev. Nathanial Turner a Wesleyan Missionary.

J. S. Turner was born at Whangaroa, New Zealand on 3rd December 1826 and received his education at the Church Missionary College at Waimate, New Zealand, and at private schools in Tasmania.

He came to the Moreton Bay Settlement in June 1852 (seven years prior to Separation from New South Wales) and opened the Brisbane Branch of the Union Bank. In August 1871, he relinquished the management of the bank to enter into partnership in the old established firm of George Raff & Co., general merchants, Commission and Shipping Agents in Eagle Street. He remained with that firm until its dissolution in 1882 when he retired from active business pursuits. In April 1878 he had been appointed a member of the Legislative Council.

Hon. J. S. Turner M.L.C. was also appointed to several directorships which included the chairmanship of the Australian Mutual Provident Society Ltd. in April 1875 and which he held for twenty‑five years. Other directorships included the Queensland Trustees Ltd. of which he was one of the founders and the oldest director, the Jondaryan Estates Company, the Mercantile Company and E. Rich & Co. as well as the Union Bank for some years after his retirement from the bank.

His trusteeships included two of early day organisations in Brisbane‑the Acclimatisation Society (plant life) at Bowen Park and the Lady Bowen Women's Hospital, Upper Wickham Terrace. He may well be regarded as the father of the Albert Street Methodist Church.

After his arrival in Brisbane he became interested in purchases of land

and hereunder are listed particulars of those other than land separately referred to in                                             the naming of thoroughfares, historically associated with his name and

those of his family:

November 1853‑Allotment 8, area 1 rood 13 perches situated on   North Quay between Turbot and Tank Streets, original price £75.

February 1854‑Allotments 18 and 17 each of 36 perches situated on the comer of Anne (Ann) and Edward Streets immediately opposite the People's Palace. This site was occupied by the Brisbane Fire Brigade Station and subsequently by Government Departments. Original price £140.

 

March 1855‑Land Portion 18 (Parish of North Brisbane) consisting of 30 acres situated on the comer of Lutwyche Road and Newmarket Road opposite Rosemount Hospital. This was a rectangular block extending almost up to Noble Street. Now Walker Street and portion of Victoria Street, Swan Terrace, Green Terrace and a small portion of Downey Park. On the southern side, the boundary extends to midway between Walker and Taylor Streets.

Land Portion 106 (Parish of North Brisbane) consisting of 3 acres and 7 perches, bounded by Bowen Bridge Road, O'Connell Terrace, Campbell Street (part of) and Wren Street. This area is situated immediately opposite the Brisbane Women's Maternity Hospital.

HAZLEWOOD ROAD

(Suburb of Merthyr). This road which should be spelled Haslewood is situated on the western portion of the grounds of Kinellan Estate and runs from Sydney Street to Oxlade Drive. It was named after Major Leonard Haslewood Turner of the Union Bank. He was a son of Hon. J. S. Turner M.L.C.

L. H. Turner died in 1906 aged 42 years.

MOUNTFORD ROAD

        (Suburb of Merthyr) runs from Sargent Road to Mark Street through the upper portion of the Kinellan Estate. It took its name also from a son of Hon. J. S. Turner M.L.C., viz. Leslie Mountford Turner who was a draughtsman in the Railway Department. L. M. Turner passed away in 1953 at the age of 81 years.

HARCOURT STREET

(New Farm, Teneriffe area). John Sargent Turner purchased on 23 December 1853 the land portion No. 41 (in the Parish of North Brisbane) which consisted of 6 acres and 14 perches. This area is identifiable nowadays as half of the block between Brunswick Street and James Street. It is bounded by Harcourt Street and Kent Street. The subdivision and subsequent sale of the land was made at the latter end of the year 1864. Harcourt Street, which was eventually extended to Commercial Road (Stratton Road) perpetuates the married name of J. S. Turner's sister as well as his infant son, Norman Harcourt Turner, who lived but six months and died on 27th October 1866. In the year 1877, the excavated rock material from the adjacent cutting in Brunswick Street was used to fill and permanently form Harcourt Street.

KENT STREET

Kent Street which forms the eastern boundary of the previously mentioned land portion No. 41, was named after another married sister of J. S. Turner.

BUTTERFIELD STREET

Butterfield Street (suburb of Herston) was named after Edward Butterfield, Chief Clerk in the Queensland Education Office, Brisbane. His full name was William Edward Butterfield and he was born in London in 1823 but had resided in Australia for over thirty‑four years. During that time he had pursued scholastic and journalistic duties. He resided for some time in Melbourne where he conducted the principal private school in that city as he likewise did subsequently in Sydney.

In the early days of the Victorian gold rush he was travelling correspondent to the Melbourne “Argus" and contributed to its editorial columns. He had further journalistic positions in Sydney and in 1862 came to Brisbane to become editor of the “Guardian" as well as conducting a private school. After leaving Brisbane Edward Butterfield, as he was generally known, became editor and part proprietor of the “Singleton Times" in New South Wales. In a few years, however, he returned to Ipswich to become editor of the “Queensland Times" in which position he remained until he accepted the position of Secretary to the Board of Education in Queensland. The office of that Department in 1874 was situated in a room of the Normal School which formerly stood on the comer of Edward and Adelaide Streets, Brisbane.

After the abolition of the Board Education, he was appointed Chief Clerk, Department of Public Instruction which position he held until his death on 20th May 1818 at the age of fifty‑five years. His home called “Norbiton" and situated on Bowen Bridge Road, was near the comer of the street which perpetuates his name, Butterfield Street. The site of his home has now become an adjacent part of the grounds of the Brisbane Women's Maternity Hospital.

WHYNOT STREET and WHYNOT ESTATE

Whynot Estate is the suburb of West End. The adjoining eastern portion of this thoroughfare, which extends beyond the Whynot Estate, was called Wood Street. In January, 1957, the name of Wood Street was changed to Whynot Street and nowadays runs from Hardgrave Road to Boundary Street West End.

The characteristic feature in the early days of Brisbane residential land auctions was the amount of advertising guff which pervaded the newspaper notices of the sale. Land, in each new estate, was described in glowing terms, the advantages were emphasised (and disadvantages disregarded), every facility desired by a purchaser was there, or would soon be available. Moreover, the inference which the auctioneer sought to convey regarding this. widely advertised estate was that, if it were not completely sold, it would confound his comprehension.

Such was the story in August 1881 when one section of the block then known as Barron's Hill, as well as the land extending up to Hardgrave Road, West End, was available for sale. The late Edgar W. Walker who had come from Auckland in 1874 to represent the New Zealand Insurance Co. Ltd. at Brisbane, owned 48 allotments in this area.

Names given to estates generally tended to be impressive, euphonious and reminiscent of some place of cherished memory in the minds of many newcomers of those days who had emigrated from the British Isles to Queensland, or to carry the surname of the original landholder. However, these factors did not enter into the choice of the estate name of the abovementioned allotments, forty of which were situated on the wider part of Whynot Street while eight faced the corners of that street and Hardgrave Road.

In accordance with the usual advertising procedure, but with a somewhat differing method of extolling the land for sale, the auctioneer prefaced with the words Why Not each of the tabulated paragraphs which set out the many admitted advantages eg., the elevation of the allotments, the pure suburban air, the proximity to the local shopping centre and the city, the inexpensive suburban rates, the wide streets, uninterrupted views and the frequency of the horse drawn omnibus service.

The words Why Not which had appeared seven times in the advertisement, prompted the name of the estate and the street which ran through it. Accordingly the adverbs Why Not were joined and became Whynot Street on the Whynot Estate, and thus, a trifle of history was made.

 

 

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